The Analyst™

Comprehensive diagnosis of your symptoms

Healthy

  Alcohol-related Problems  
 
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Signs, symptoms and indicators | Conditions that suggest it | Contributing risk factors | Other conditions that may be present | It can lead to... | Recommendations

 

Alcoholism is the physical and emotional dependency on the use of alcohol, the removal of which causes physical and emotional withdrawal symptoms. Although two-thirds of American men and one-half of American women drink alcohol, three-fourths of drinkers experience no serious consequences from alcohol use. Amongst those who abuse alcohol, many reduce their drinking without formal treatment after personal reflection about negative consequences.

The physical dependence element develops at different rates for different individuals and effects vary widely. Any human who drinks enough alcohol over enough time will become alcoholic. For some, it takes large quantities and long periods and for others, small quantities and short periods. It is difficult to predict where any given individual may be on that scale. Genetic predisposition to easy development of alcoholism is evidenced in differing proportions in differing ethnic groups.

Symptoms of chronic alcoholism. The main ones include:

  • Denying the problem
  • Tremors
  • Blackouts
  • Mood swings upon ingestion
  • Protecting supply (many alcoholics can hold a job long after they have lost everything else, including their family)
  • A loved one or associate telling the patient they drink too much
  • Gulping drinks
  • Hiding supply
Brain damage
Researchers have found that patterns of brain damage consistent with alcoholism were detectable among a large number of
subjects in those who drank heavily. In areas of memory, balance and processing speed, heavy drinkers, as a whole, were described as "significantly impaired" compared to the light drinkers.

Only 100 drinks per month were required to create brain damage. At first glance, that may seem like a lot. But it's just three beers, glasses of wine or hard alcohol per day, with a couple of extra drinks thrown in on the weekends. While that may seem high to some of us, it's a level that many people easily reach without disrupting their lives. As one researcher put it, "these people are not in treatment and function relatively well in their communities. But all along, the alcohol is taking a steady toll on the brain." 100 drinks per month defined heavy drinking among men in this study. For women, only 80 drinks per month qualified as heavy.

Quitting
Repeated studies of alcoholics have confirmed that it is almost invariably fear which drives an alcoholic to seek help; fear for his safety, health, or sanity; fear of loss of love, family, home or job. An event ferocious enough, frightening enough, appalling enough, or humiliating enough happens to breech his denial system. But the defenses of the mind are like those of the body; they rush to wall off, to localize and repair damage. No sooner has the alcoholic faced the magnitude and malignancy of his drinking problem than the denial begins to build again and he begins to temporize.

As paradoxical as it seems, therefore, the first phase in any treatment approach to the alcoholic, even the alcoholic who has specifically presented himself to obtain help with his drinking problem, must center on his being confronted with the inescapable fact of his alcoholism. He must be repeatedly reminded he is an alcoholic, that he is no different from other alcoholics in his vulnerability to alcohol, and that his feelings of imperviousness to relapse are not justified. Even with persistent confrontations, it may take 3-6 months before the alcoholic's efforts to rebuild his denial system taper off, and this will be the time of greatest danger that he will drop back out of treatment.

The recovery rate is often poor even among people who seek help. Alcoholics Anonymous, made up of recovering alcoholics, is as successful as any treatment program and there is no fee.

When anxiety is a factor promoting the consumption of alcohol, a condition called Pyroluria should be investigated. As many as one-third to one-half of alcoholics have this genetic chemical imbalance.
 

 
 

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Alcohol-related Problems:
 
 
Lab Values - Cells  Macrocytic red cells

Symptoms - Head - Nose

  An enlarged nose
 Rhinophyma (an enlarged nose) has been associated with several causes including the over-consumption of alcohol. Men are 12 times more likely to have this problem than women.

Symptoms - Metabolic

  Having a slight/having a moderate/having a high fever

Symptoms - Mind - General

  Short-term memory failure
 Alcoholics as well as the elderly suffer gradual loss of acetylcholine, a vital neurotransmitter. The brain compensates for this change by heightening the sensitivity of the receptors carrying memory messages, but because of the acetylcholine shortage, the transmission cannot be completed and short-term recall is poor.

Symptoms - Nervous

  Numb/tingling/burning extremities
 
 

Conditions that suggest Alcohol-related Problems:
 
 
Digestion  Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut

Hormones

  Low Sex Drive

Lab Values

  Elevated Triglycerides

Metabolic

  Edema (Water Retention)
 Excessive alcohol intake can cause edema,

  Insomnia
 Depletion of tryptophan as a result of heavy drinking explains why alcoholics suffer from insomnia.

  Hemochromatosis (Iron overload)
 Use of alcohol and other hepatotoxic drugs lowers the ability of the liver to safely store iron and may accelerate the development of the liver changes seen with hemochromatosis.

Nutrients

  Vitamin B1 Requirement
 Alcoholics and binge drinkers are especially prone to thiamin deficiency as alcohol reduces absorption, alters metabolism and depletes body stores. Alcoholics also tend to have poor diets. Thiamin deficiency is associated with some of the symptoms of alcoholism such as mental confusion, visual disturbances and staggering gait. If thiamin deficiency is not corrected, permanent brain damage may result. This condition is known as Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome and is usually seen in people who have been addicted to alcohol for many years.

  Zinc Requirement
 Zinc deficiency is frequently associated with alcoholism, due to a lower intake of food.

  Magnesium Requirement
 Chronic alcoholism is a frequent cause of low calcium and magnesium levels.

  Multiple Vitamin Need
 An interesting study showed significantly decreased levels of anxiety among a group of alcoholics treated with megavitamins. Over a 21-day period, the group took approximately 3gm of vitamin C, 3gm of niacin, 600mg of B6, and 600 IU of vitamin E per day. A comparison group received only inert gelatin capsules. None of the subjects in either group took antidepressants or antianxiety drugs. Anxiety levels among both groups were measured three times over the 21 days. They fell dramatically only in the group on megavitamin therapy.

  Calcium Requirement

Organ Health

  Cirrhosis of the Liver
 To many people, cirrhosis of the liver is synonymous with chronic alcoholism. It is a major cause, but nevertheless one of several. Alcoholic cirrhosis usually develops after more than a decade of heavy drinking. The amount of alcohol that can injure the liver varies from person to person. In women, as few as two to three drinks per day have been linked with cirrhosis and in men, as few as three to four drinks per day. Alcohol seems to injure the liver by blocking the normal metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates.

  Esophagitis

Risks

  Increased Risk of Mouth/Throat Cancer
 
 

Risk factors for Alcohol-related Problems:
 
 
Lab Values - Chemistries  Hypocalcemia
  Excellent HDL level
 Elevated levels of HDL cholesterol are generally considered to have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, very elevated levels can be a result of liver disease or chronic intoxication.

Metabolic

  Pyroluria
 As many as one-third to one-half of alcoholics have the genetic, chemical imbalance called pyroluria.

Nutrients

  EFA (Essential Fatty Acid) Type 3 Requirement
 Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may contribute to depressive symptoms in alcoholism, multiple sclerosis and postpartum depression.

Symptoms - Food - Beverages

  High/moderate alcohol consumption

Counter-indicators:
  Low alcohol consumption or complete alcohol avoidance
  Being a recovered alcoholic
  Very low alcohol consumption or never having consumed alcohol

Symptoms - Mind - General

Counter-indicators:
  Absence of short-term memory loss
 Alcoholics as well as the elderly suffer gradual loss of acetylcholine, a vital neurotransmitter. The brain compensates for this change by heightening the sensitivity of the receptors carrying memory messages, but because of the acetylcholine shortage, the transmission cannot be completed and short-term recall is poor.
 
 

Alcohol-related Problems suggests the following may be present:
 
 
Nutrients  Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/ Supplements
  Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/o Supplements
 
 

Alcohol-related Problems can lead to:
 
 
Circulation  Aneurysm / Weakened Arteries
 See the link between Smoke Damage and Aneurysm.

  Cardiomyopathy
 Cardiomyopathy occurs with greater frequency in people who drink too much alcohol. The risk of developing DCM is greater for female than for male alcoholics. [JAMA 1995;274(2): pp.149-54] Alcoholics can develop a form of thiamine deficiency called wet beri beri or Shoshin beri beri, which frequently includes cardiomyopathy.

Digestion

  Hydrochloric Acid Deficiency
 Alcohol consumption can damage the HCL producing cells in the stomach.

  Increased Intestinal Permeability / Leaky Gut

Hormones

  Low Sex Drive

Metabolic

  Insomnia
 Depletion of tryptophan as a result of heavy drinking explains why alcoholics suffer from insomnia.

Musculo-Skeletal

  Dupuytren's Contracture
 See the link between Diabetes II and Dupuytren's Contracture.

Nutrients

  Vitamin A Requirement
 Excess alcohol intake depletes vitamin A stores. Also, diets high in alcohol usually do not provide recommended amounts of vitamin A. It is very important for anyone who consumes excessive amounts of alcohol to include good sources of vitamin A in his or her diet. However, Vitamin A supplementation may not be recommended for individuals who abuse alcohol because alcohol may increase liver toxicity associated with excess intakes of vitamin A . A doctor would need to evaluate this situation and determine the need for vitamin A supplementation.

  Magnesium Requirement
 Chronic alcoholism is a frequent cause of low calcium and magnesium levels.

  Multiple Vitamin Need
 An interesting study showed significantly decreased levels of anxiety among a group of alcoholics treated with megavitamins. Over a 21-day period, the group took approximately 3gm of vitamin C, 3gm of niacin, 600mg of B6, and 600 IU of vitamin E per day. A comparison group received only inert gelatin capsules. None of the subjects in either group took antidepressants or antianxiety drugs. Anxiety levels among both groups were measured three times over the 21 days. They fell dramatically only in the group on megavitamin therapy.

  Vitamin B1 Requirement
 Alcoholics and binge drinkers are especially prone to thiamin deficiency as alcohol reduces absorption, alters metabolism and depletes body stores. Alcoholics also tend to have poor diets. Thiamin deficiency is associated with some of the symptoms of alcoholism such as mental confusion, visual disturbances and staggering gait. If thiamin deficiency is not corrected, permanent brain damage may result. This condition is known as Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome and is usually seen in people who have been addicted to alcohol for many years.

  Calcium Requirement
  Zinc Requirement
 Zinc deficiency is frequently associated with alcoholism, due to a lower intake of food.

Organ Health

  Fatty Liver

Risks

  Increased Risk of Mouth/Throat Cancer
 
 

Recommendations for Alcohol-related Problems:
 
 
Amino Acid / Protein  Glutamine
 Alcohol inhibits glutamine synthase which partly explains the neurotoxicity of alcohol.

Botanical

  Chlorella / Algae Products

Not recommended:
  Kava
 Kava alone has little effect on reported condition and cognitive performance, but appears to potentiate both perceived and measured impairment when combined with alcohol. [Drug Alcohol Rev. 1997 Jun;16(2):147-55]

In other words, when taken together with kava, alcohol increases the risk of impairment from this herb.

Diet

  Alcohol Avoidance
  Raw Food Diet
 In a study where the average intake of uncooked food comprised 62% of calories ingested, 80% of those who drank alcohol abstained spontaneously. [South Med J 1985 Jul;78(7): pp.841-4]

  Therapeutic Fasting
 Fasting makes it easier to overcome bad habits and addictions. Many people have overcome tobacco and alcohol addictions, and even drug addictions, by fasting. Fasting rapidly dissipates the craving for alcohol.

Drug

  GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate)
 GHB shows great promise in the treatment of alcoholism. In Europe, one of its primary uses is to relieve withdrawal symptoms, cravings, and anxiety among alcoholics.

In laboratory rats addicted to alcohol, withdrawal symptoms closely resemble those exhibited by humans, including tremors, convulsions, and hypersensitivity to sound. All of these symptoms were blocked by sufficiently high doses of GHB (Fadda, 1989). Administration of GHB has also been found to prevent alcohol consumption among rats that voluntarily ingest alcohol (Fadda, 1989; Gallimberti, 1989).

In a rigorous, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted of human alcoholics, “nearly all withdrawal symptoms disappeared within 2-7 hours” after administration of GHB. On a severe-moderate-mild-or-none scale, withdrawal symptoms remained below moderate during the entire period. The only side effect observed was slight, occasional, and transient dizziness. The researchers concluded, “the results clearly indicated that GHB is effective for the suppression of withdrawal symptoms in alcoholics” (Gallimberti, 1989).

Lab Tests/Rule-Outs

  Test Zinc Levels
 It is clear that brain zinc content changes during disease states and that brain zinc deficiency is possibly dynamically related to alcoholism. McLardy (1973) observed a 30% deficit in brain zinc levels amongst chronic alcoholics.

  Test for Manganese Levels
  Test for Urine Kryptopyrroles
  Test Copper Levels

Mineral

  Lithium (low dose)
 See the link between Depression and Lithium.

Forty-two patients hospitalized for the management of their alcoholism were given 150 mg of lithium orotate every day. It was found that lithium orotate helped improve the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment. Ten of the patients experienced no relapse for over three to ten years. 13 patients remained alcohol-free for one to two years, and the remaining 12 experienced a relapse between 6 to 12 months. Lithium orotate therapy was seen as relatively safe, with minor adverse side effects seen in some patients (muscle weakness, appetite loss, mild apathy). For these patients, symptoms subsided following the reduction of lithium orotate administration.

Over 50% of the alcoholic patients who completed this study were without relapse for over one year and 25% of them made it over 3 years without a relapse. NOTE: The discovery of decreasing mild side effects through slightly reducing lithium orotate supplementation provides further scientific evidence that lithium has no inherent toxicity when taken in smaller, reasonable dosages. -A study titled: “Lithium orotate in the treatment of alcoholism and related conditions.”

Nutrient

  Alpha Lipoic Acid
 Alpha-lipoic acid should not be given in high doses to patients suspected of having a thiamine deficiency unless the thiamine deficiency is also corrected. Individuals who may be deficient in vitamin B1 (such as alcoholics) should supplement vitamin B1 along with alpha-lipoic acid.


Not recommended:
  Beta-Carotene
 Synthetic supplemental beta-carotene should be avoided by those who consume alcohol as it appears to increase the risk colorectal adenomas (polyps). [J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95: pp. 717-722]

Oriental Medicine

  Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT)

Psychological

  Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

Vitamins

  Vitamin B Complex
 Regular use of a quality high potency multiple vitamin may be important in alcoholism. Alcoholics are classically deficient in most of the B vitamins. These deficiencies result from a variety of mechanisms: low dietary intake, deactivation of the active form, impaired conversion to the active form by ethanol or acetaldehyde, impaired absorption, and decreased storage capacity. A thiamine deficiency is both the most common and the most serious of the B-vitamin deficiencies, since a deficiency causes beriberi and the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. A functional pyridoxine deficiency is also common in alcoholics, due not so much to inadequate intake as impaired conversion to its active form, pyridoxal-5-phosphate, and enhanced degradation.

  Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  Vitamin Inositol Hexaniacinate
  Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
 
 


KEY
Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Proven definite or direct link
Weakly counter-indicative
Strongly counter-indicative
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
May do some good
Likely to help
Highly recommended
May have adverse consequences
Reasonably likely to cause problems







GLOSSARY

Acetylcholine:  A neurotransmitter widely distributed in body tissues with a primary function of mediating synaptic activity of the nervous system and skeletal muscles.

Aneurysm:  Localized enlargement of an artery.

Anxiety:  Apprehension of danger, or dread, accompanied by nervous restlessness, tension, increased heart rate, and shortness of breath unrelated to a clearly identifiable stimulus.

Calcium:  The body's most abundant mineral. Its primary function is to help build and maintain bones and teeth. Calcium is also important to heart health, nerves, muscles and skin. Calcium helps control blood acid-alkaline balance, plays a role in cell division, muscle growth and iron utilization, activates certain enzymes, and helps transport nutrients through cell membranes. Calcium also forms a cellular cement called ground substance that helps hold cells and tissues together.

Carbohydrates:  The sugars and starches in food. Sugars are called simple carbohydrates and found in such foods as fruit and table sugar. Complex carbohydrates are composed of large numbers of sugar molecules joined together, and are found in grains, legumes, and vegetables like potatoes, squash, and corn.

Cardiovascular:  Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.

Cholesterol:  A waxy, fat-like substance manufactured in the liver and found in all tissues, it facilitates the transport and absorption of fatty acids. In foods, only animal products contain cholesterol. An excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

Chronic:  Usually Chronic illness: Illness extending over a long period of time.

Cirrhosis:  A long-term disease in which the liver becomes covered with fiber-like tissue. This causes the liver tissue to break down and become filled with fat. All functions of the liver then decrease, including the production of glucose, processing drugs and alcohol, and vitamin absorption. Stomach and bowel function, and the making of hormones are also affected.

Contracture:  An abnormal, often permanent shortening, as of muscle or scar tissue, that results in distortion or deformity, especially of a joint of the body.

Diabetes Mellitus:  A disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin. Diabetes is found in two forms; insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile-onset) and non-insulin-dependent (adult-onset). Symptoms include increased thirst; increased urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness. Other symptoms include bleeding gums; ear noise/buzzing; diarrhea; depression; confusion.

Edema:  Abnormal accumulation of fluids within tissues resulting in swelling.

Fatty Acids:  Chemical chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are part of a fat (lipid) and are the major component of triglycerides. Depending on the number and arrangement of these atoms, fatty acids are classified as either saturated, polyunsaturated, or monounsaturated. They are nutritional substances found in nature which include cholesterol, prostaglandins, and stearic, palmitic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosapentanoic (EPA), and decohexanoic acids. Important nutritional lipids include lecithin, choline, gamma-linoleic acid, and inositol.

Gram:  (gm): A metric unit of weight, there being approximately 28 grams in one ounce.

Hemochromatosis:  A rare disease in which iron deposits build up throughout the body. Enlarged liver, skin discoloration, diabetes mellitus, and heart failure may occur.

Hepatotoxic:  Being toxic or destructive to the liver.

High-Density Lipoprotein:  (HDL): Also known as "good" cholesterol, HDLs are large, dense, protein-fat particles that circulate in the blood picking up already used and unused cholesterol and taking them back to the liver as part of a recycling process. Higher levels of HDLs are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease because the cholesterol is cleared more readily from the blood.

Hydrochloric Acid:  (HCl): An inorganic acidic compound, excreted by the stomach, that aids in digestion.

Iron:  An essential mineral. Prevents anemia: as a constituent of hemoglobin, transports oxygen throughout the body. Virtually all of the oxygen used by cells in the life process are brought to the cells by the hemoglobin of red blood cells. Iron is a small but most vital, component of the hemoglobin in 20,000 billion red blood cells, of which 115 million are formed every minute. Heme iron (from meat) is absorbed 10 times more readily than the ferrous or ferric form.

IU:  International Units. One IU is 1/40th (0.025) of a microgram (mcg).

Magnesium:  An essential mineral. The chief function of magnesium is to activate certain enzymes, especially those related to carbohydrate metabolism. Another role is to maintain the electrical potential across nerve and muscle membranes. It is essential for proper heartbeat and nerve transmission. Magnesium controls many cellular functions. It is involved in protein formation, DNA production and function and in the storage and release of energy in ATP. Magnesium is closely related to calcium and phosphorus in body function. The average adult body contains approximately one ounce of magnesium. It is the fifth mineral in abundance within the body--behind calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Although about 70 percent of the body's magnesium is contained in the teeth and bones, its most important functions are carried out by the remainder which is present in the cells of the soft tissues and in the fluid surrounding those cells.

Metabolism:  The chemical processes of living cells in which energy is produced in order to replace and repair tissues and maintain a healthy body. Responsible for the production of energy, biosynthesis of important substances, and degradation of various compounds.

Milligram:  (mg): 1/1,000 of a gram by weight.

Multiple Sclerosis:  Demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, causing patches of sclerosis (plaques) in the brain and spinal cord, manifested by loss of normal neurological functions, e.g., muscle weakness, loss of vision, and mood alterations.

Neurotransmitters:  Chemicals in the brain that aid in the transmission of nerve impulses. Various Neurotransmitters are responsible for different functions including controlling mood and muscle movement and inhibiting or causing the sensation of pain.

Niacin:  (Vitamin B-3): A coenzyme B-complex vitamin that assists in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Essential for the health of the skin, nerves, tongue and digestive system. It is found in every cell of the body and is necessary for energy production. Niacin is also needed for DNA formation.

Polyunsaturated:  Polyunsaturated fats or oils. Originate from vegetables and are liquid at room temperature. These oils are a good source of the unsaturated fatty acids. They include flaxseed with added vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), sunflower oil, safflower oil, and primrose oil.

Postpartum Depression:  The "baby blues" are a very frequent and completely normal consequence of childbirth, usually wearing off soon afterwards as hormonal and psychological systems get back to normal. Postpartum depression is a less common but severe depression that begins in the weeks following delivery. It impairs the ability of the mother to care for the child and fall in love with it. This makes her feel even more depressed and inadequate thinking that she can not be a good mother. At the extreme, postpartum depression may lead to dangerous delusions (for example, thinking the baby is in some way deformed or cursed) or hallucinations (that may command violent acts). This can occasionally result in a tragic episode of suicide and/or infanticide.

Protein:  Compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen present in the body and in foods that form complex combinations of amino acids. Protein is essential for life and is used for growth and repair. Foods that supply the body with protein include animal products, grains, legumes, and vegetables. Proteins from animal sources contain the essential amino acids. Proteins are changed to amino acids in the body.

Pyroluria:  This condition is caused by an overproduction during hemoglobin synthesis of kryptopyrrole, which chemically combines with vitamin B6 and zinc, resulting in their excretion and a severe deficiency of both of these essential nutrients. Most pyroluric individuals never develop schizophrenia symptoms.

Rhinophyma:  A condition of the skin that can severely deform the nose.

Stomach:  A hollow, muscular, J-shaped pouch located in the upper part of the abdomen to the left of the midline. The upper end (fundus) is large and dome-shaped; the area just below the fundus is called the body of the stomach. The fundus and the body are often referred to as the cardiac portion of the stomach. The lower (pyloric) portion curves downward and to the right and includes the antrum and the pylorus. The function of the stomach is to begin digestion by physically breaking down food received from the esophagus. The tissues of the stomach wall are composed of three types of muscle fibers: circular, longitudinal and oblique. These fibers create structural elasticity and contractibility, both of which are needed for digestion. The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin. To protect itself from being destroyed by its own enzymes, the stomach’s mucous lining must constantly regenerate itself.

Thiamine:  (Vitamin B-1): A B-complex vitamin that acts as a coenzyme necessary for the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned in the body for energy. It is essential for the functioning of the nervous system.

Tryptophan:  Essential amino acid. Natural relaxant and sleep aid due to its precursor role in serotonin (a neurotransmitter) synthesis. Along with tyrosine, it is used in the treatment of addictions.

Vitamin A:  A fat-soluble vitamin essential to one's health. Plays an important part in the growth and repair of body tissue, protects epithelial tissue, helps maintain the skin and is necessary for night vision. It is also necessary for normal growth and formation of bones and teeth. For Vitamin A only, 1mg translates to 833 IU.

Vitamin B6:  Influences many body functions including regulating blood glucose levels, manufacturing hemoglobin and aiding the utilization of protein, carbohydrates and fats. It also aids in the function of the nervous system.

Vitamin C:  Also known as ascorbic acid, Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant vitamin essential to the body's health. When bound to other nutrients, for example calcium, it would be referred to as "calcium ascorbate". As an antioxidant, it inhibits the formation of nitrosamines (a suspected carcinogen). Vitamin C is important for maintenance of bones, teeth, collagen and blood vessels (capillaries), enhances iron absorption and red blood cell formation, helps in the utilization of carbohydrates and synthesis of fats and proteins, aids in fighting bacterial infections, and interacts with other nutrients. It is present in citrus fruits, tomatoes, berries, potatoes and fresh, green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin E:  An essential fat-soluble vitamin. As an antioxidant, helps protect cell membranes, lipoproteins, fats and vitamin A from destructive oxidation. It helps protect red blood cells and is important for the proper function of nerves and muscles. For Vitamin E only, 1mg translates to 1 IU.

Zinc:  An essential trace mineral. The functions of zinc are enzymatic. There are over 70 metalloenzymes known to require zinc for their functions. The main biochemicals in which zinc has been found to be necessary include: enzymes and enzymatic function, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Zinc is a constituent of insulin and male reproductive fluid. Zinc is necessary for the proper metabolism of alcohol, to get rid of the lactic acid that builds up in working muscles and to transfer it to the lungs. Zinc is involved in the health of the immune system, assists vitamin A utilization and is involved in the formation of bone and teeth.