|Botanical|| Grape Seed Extract / Resveratrol
| ||Research in mice demonstrated that the phytoalexin, resveratrol, can prevent or attenuate the diabetic (insulin resistant) condition. The investigators found that resveratrol activated one or more SIRT enzymes that eliminated a fat-associated inhibitor of insulin action (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B). The net result of resveratrol�s action was to convert muscle, fat and liver tissue cells to an insulin-sensitive state. Subsequently, this allowed glucose to be removed from the blood, returning the tissues to energy homeostasis. [J. Cell Metabolism, October 2007; vol 6: pp 247-249]|
The question remains as to whether the encouraging results obtained with animal and cell culture research will hold true for humans.
Irvingia Gabonensis (African Mango)
| ||Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango) extract administered twice a day to healthy, overweight and obese individuals resulted in both weight reduction (body weight, body fat, waist size) and an improvement in metabolic parameters associated with insulin resistance. [
Lipids in Health and Disease 2009, 8:7doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-]|
Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum)
| ||Cinnamon with each meal helps keep insulin and blood sugar levels under control. The typical 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon dose contains a phytochemical called methyl hydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP) which improves cellular glucose utilization and increases the sensitivity of insulin receptors in laboratory studies. Personal testimonies indicate that this effect is seen in humans, but further study is required to confirm this.|
| ||Please see the link between Metabolic Syndrome and Fructose Avoidance.|
Sugars Avoidance / Reduction
| ||The notion that foods with a low glycemic index aid fat loss is based on the idea they help to control insulin levels. A sample list of these foods can be found on our web site.|
High/Increased Protein Diet
| ||Carbohydrates such as simple sugars, grains and starchy vegetables should be avoided as they stimulate insulin secretion. They should be replaced with higher protein containing foods and non starchy vegetables.|
| ||In 3,250 Chinese women living in widely dispersed rural counties, researchers examined the relationship of various foods with a specific set of biochemical blood tests that have been shown to be commonly linked with diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure and coronary heart disease, otherwise collectively known as the "insulin resistance syndrome." |
They found that the pattern of blood biochemistries of people in the northern part of China who eat a predominantly wheat- based diet resemble those in people with insulin resistance. This pattern includes higher insulin, higher triglycerides, and lower SHBG. The Chinese women in the south, on the other hand, eat a rice-based diet and have a pattern of blood values that would be considered low risk.
The differing effects of wheat and rice on SHBG and insulin may be due to the difference in amylose content, a particular kind of starch. Other researchers have found that some rice varieties have higher amylose content than wheat; some types of rice, on the other hand, have comparable levels. Several recent studies have shown that starches with higher amylose content slow down glucose absorption and thus reduce the insulin response of the meal.
Hydrogenated Fats / Trans Fatty Acids Avoidance
Milk / Dairy Products
| ||A higher consumption of dairy products was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance (Syndrome X) in a study of 3,157 young adults followed for a 10 year period. [JAMA 2002;287(16): pp.2081-2089]|
Conventional Drugs / Information
| ||Metformin makes the body's tissues more sensitive to insulin and is one of the most common OHAs, or oral hypoglycemic agent, on the market. Its use can make weight loss easier too.|
Diindolylmethane DIM / Indole 3 Carbinol IC3
| ||Diindolylmethane (DIM), a stable indole, has been reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and encourage abdominal fat loss.|
| ||Aerobic exercise is very important in keeping insulin levels low and to prevent cells from becoming insulin resistant. Exercise becomes effective in promoting weight loss through these two mechanisms.|
Please see the link and comment between Metabolic Syndrome and Exercise.
| ||56 obese women with insulin resistance, but normal glucose levels, experienced reduced insulin levels with 30mg per day of supplemental zinc, in spite of having normal zinc levels at the beginning of the trial. [American Diabetes Association June 14-18, 2002. San Francisco, California]|
| ||Chromium picolinate supplementation at 1,000mcg per day over a 13-week period combined with exercise decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and insulin levels in a recent small study of both males and females. [J Nutr Biochem, 1998;9: pp.471-475]|
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
| ||DHA at 1.8gm per day improved insulin sensitivity while having no effect on insulin secretion, in a pilot study of 12 overweight adults 45-70 years old. [Experimental Biology, April 20-24, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; abstract]|
| ||A 2004 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition determined that raising a person's serum vitamin D levels (from 25 to 75 nmol/l) could improve insulin sensitivity by 60%!|| |
Cancer: Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.
Carbohydrates: The sugars and starches in food. Sugars are called simple carbohydrates and found in such foods as fruit and table sugar. Complex carbohydrates are composed of large numbers of sugar molecules joined together, and are found in grains, legumes, and vegetables like potatoes, squash, and corn.
Cardiac: Pertaining to the heart, also, pertaining to the stomach area adjacent to the esophagus.
Cholesterol: A waxy, fat-like substance manufactured in the liver and found in all tissues, it facilitates the transport and absorption of fatty acids. In foods, only animal products contain cholesterol. An excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
Chronic: Usually Chronic illness: Illness extending over a long period of time.
Colorectal Cancer: A cancerous tumor of the large intestine. It is marked by dark, sticky stools containing blood and a change in bowel habits.
DHEA: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid produced by the adrenal glands and is the most abundant one found in humans. DHEA may be transformed into testosterone, estrogen or other steroids. It is found in the body as DHEA or in the sulfated form known as DHEA-S. One form is converted into the other as needed.
Diabetes Mellitus: A disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin. Diabetes is found in two forms; insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile-onset) and non-insulin-dependent (adult-onset). Symptoms include increased thirst; increased urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness. Other symptoms include bleeding gums; ear noise/buzzing; diarrhea; depression; confusion.
Enzymes: Specific protein catalysts produced by the cells that are crucial in chemical reactions and in building up or synthesizing most compounds in the body. Each enzyme performs a specific function without itself being consumed. For example, the digestive enzyme amylase acts on carbohydrates in foods to break them down.
Fatty Acids: Chemical chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are part of a fat (lipid) and are the major component of triglycerides. Depending on the number and arrangement of these atoms, fatty acids are classified as either saturated, polyunsaturated, or monounsaturated. They are nutritional substances found in nature which include cholesterol, prostaglandins, and stearic, palmitic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosapentanoic (EPA), and decohexanoic acids. Important nutritional lipids include lecithin, choline, gamma-linoleic acid, and inositol.
Glucose: A sugar that is the simplest form of carbohydrate. It is commonly referred to as blood sugar. The body breaks down carbohydrates in foods into glucose, which serves as the primary fuel for the muscles and the brain.
Gout: A disease characterized by an increased blood uric acid level and sudden onset of episodes of acute arthritis.
Hormones: Chemical substances secreted by a variety of body organs that are carried by the bloodstream and usually influence cells some distance from the source of production. Hormones signal certain enzymes to perform their functions and, in this way, regulate such body functions as blood sugar levels, insulin levels, the menstrual cycle, and growth. These can be prescription, over-the-counter, synthetic or natural agents. Examples include adrenal hormones such as corticosteroids and aldosterone; glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, testosterone, estrogens, progestins, progesterone, DHEA, melatonin, and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and calcitonin.
Hyperlipidemia: Increased cholesterol level.
Hypertension: High blood pressure. Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure because it adds to the workload of the heart, causing it to enlarge and, over time, to weaken; in addition, it may damage the walls of the arteries.
Hypoglycemia: A condition characterized by an abnormally low blood glucose level. Severe hypoglycemia is rare and dangerous. It can be caused by medications such as insulin (diabetics are prone to hypoglycemia), severe physical exhaustion, and some illnesses.
Insulin: A hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove glucose from the blood for use or storage.
Lipase: An enzyme secreted by the pancreas to assist in fat breakdown.
Lipoproteins: Molecules composed of lipids and proteins that carry fats and cholesterol through the bloodstream.
Postmenopause: The postmenopausal phase of a woman's life begins when 12 full months have passed since the last menstrual period and any menopausal symptoms have become milder and/or less frequent.
Premenopause: The period when women of childbearing age experience relatively normal reproductive function (including regular periods).
Protein: Compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen present in the body and in foods that form complex combinations of amino acids. Protein is essential for life and is used for growth and repair. Foods that supply the body with protein include animal products, grains, legumes, and vegetables. Proteins from animal sources contain the essential amino acids. Proteins are changed to amino acids in the body.