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  Manganese Requirement  
 
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Signs, symptoms and indicators | Conditions that suggest it | Contributing risk factors | It can lead to... | Recommendations

 

The increasing consumption of refined flours and sugars is the now the most common cause of low manganese levels. Zinc, iron and calcium supplementation have an antagonistic effect on manganese absorption. These interactions suggest that taking multi-minerals that include manganese may protect against manganese deficiencies that might otherwise be triggered by taking those mineral supplements by themselves.
 

 
 

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Manganese Requirement:
 
 
Lab Values - Cells  Elevated MCH
 Increased mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin are seen in cases of manganese deficiency.

  Macrocytic red cells

Symptoms - General

  Constant fatigue
  Fatigue on light exertion

Symptoms - Hair

  Slow hair growth

Symptoms - Nails

  Slow fingernail growth

Symptoms - Reproductive - General

  Poor milk production
 
 

Conditions that suggest Manganese Requirement:
 
 
Aging  Hearing Loss

Circulation

  Atherosclerosis
 Manganese strengthens arterial tissues, making them more resistant to plaque formation.

Lab Values

  Elevated LDL/HDL Ratio
 Manganese can help lower high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, with a particular effect on stabilizing LDL and decreasing its atherogenic potential.

  Elevated Triglycerides
 See the link between Low HDL/LDL Cholesterol Ratio and Manganese Need.

  Elevated Total Cholesterol
 See the link between Low HDL/LDL Cholesterol Ratio and Manganese Need.

Mental

  Depression
 Low blood manganese levels may accentuate depression. A deficiency may contribute to depression stemming from low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.

Musculo-Skeletal

  Osteoarthritis
 Bone cartilage canít grow or repair itself adequately without manganese - an essential part of glucosamine, which is in turn a major joint building block. When glucosamine is in short supply, various forms of arthritis tend to arise, eventually leading to joint deterioration. Manganese is involved in the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and other components of mucopolysaccharides, the complex sugars which form the basis of our synovial (joint) fluids and connective tissues.

  Torn, Weak, or Relaxed Ligaments or Tendons
  Osteoporosis / Risk
 Individuals with osteoporosis sometimes have low blood levels of manganese. [Raloff J. Reasons for boning up on manganese. Science Sep 1986, 199 [review]]

Nervous System

  Tardive Dyskinesia
 Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed. [Manganese in dyskinesias. Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

  Seizure Disorder
 At least six different studies have confirmed confirmed that people who experience seizures have below normal manganese levels. Epileptics have low whole blood and hair manganese levels, and those with the lowest manganese levels typically have the highest seizure activity.

Nutrients

  Selenium Requirement

Organ Health

  Diabetes Type II
 People with diabetes often have low manganese levels and this deficiency contributes to an inability to process sugars. Supplementation improves glucose management in diabetics. [Nature, 1962; 194: pp.188-89]


Counter-indicators:
  Cirrhosis of the Liver
 Preliminary research suggests that individuals with cirrhosis may not be able to properly excrete manganese. Until more is known, these people should not supplement manganese. [Lancet 1995;346: pp.270-4]

Risks

  Increased Risk of Hypertension

Skin-Hair-Nails

  Male Hair Loss
 Mineral metabolism of 19 patients with hair loss was examined. The analysis showed manganese deficiency in all 19. Eighteen patients showed considerable problems with calcium absorption, and twelve patients had problems with their zinc metabolism. Specific nutritional and mineral therapy resulted in improved hair growth after 2-3 months of treatment. [Blaurock-Busch, E. Wichtige Nahrstoffe fur Gesunde Haut und Haare, Kosmetik Internat. 3/87]

  Female Hair Loss
 Mineral metabolism of 19 patients with hair loss was examined and the analysis showed manganese deficiency in all. Eighteen patients showed considerable problems with calcium absorption, and twelve patients had problems with their zinc metabolism. Specific nutritional and mineral therapy resulted in improved hair growth after 2-3 months of treatment. [Blaurock-Busch, E. Wichtige Nahrstoffe fur Gesunde Haut und Haare, Kosmetik Internat. 3/87]

Uro-Genital

  Premenstrual Syndrome / PMDD
 In a double blind study of women with normal menstrual cycles, lower dietary manganese (1.0mg versus 5.6mg) was found to increase mood and pain symptoms during the premenstrual phase. [Am J ObstetGynecol. 1993 May; 168(5): pp.1417-23]

  Possible Pregnancy-Related Issues
 There is a risk of fetal malformations, including increases in neural tube defects, without an adequate amount of manganese.

  Female Infertility
 
 

Risk factors for Manganese Requirement:
 
 
Childhood  (Severe) Perthes disease
 Zinc, Manganese and vitamin B6 have been helpful in treating osteochondrosis (Leg-hip Perthes disease). This might suggest an ongoing requirement.

Environment / Toxicity

  Zinc Toxicity
 An insidious effect of excess zinc over a period of years is the reduction of serum manganese, 90% of which is contained in the erythrocytes.

Supplements and Medications

  Iron supplementation
  Taking calcium supplement
  Magnesium supplementation

Counter-indicators:
  Multiple mineral supplement use

Symptoms - Food - Intake

Counter-indicators:
  Frequent/daily oat use
 
 

Manganese Requirement can lead to:
 
 
Lab Values  Elevated LDL/HDL Ratio
 Manganese can help lower high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, with a particular effect on stabilizing LDL and decreasing its atherogenic potential.

  Elevated Total Cholesterol
 See the link between Low HDL/LDL Cholesterol Ratio and Manganese Need.

Mental

  Depression
 Low blood manganese levels may accentuate depression. A deficiency may contribute to depression stemming from low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine.

Nervous System

  Tardive Dyskinesia
 Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed. [Manganese in dyskinesias. Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

Nutrients

  Multiple Mineral, General Requirement

Organ Health

  Diabetes Type II
 People with diabetes often have low manganese levels and this deficiency contributes to an inability to process sugars. Supplementation improves glucose management in diabetics. [Nature, 1962; 194: pp.188-89]
 
 

Recommendations for Manganese Requirement:
 
 
Mineral  Manganese
 
 


KEY
Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Strongly counter-indicative
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
Highly recommended







GLOSSARY

Arthritis:  Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. It occurs in various forms, such as bacterial arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis, the most common form, is characterized by a gradual loss of cartilage and often an overgrowth of bone at the joints.

Calcium:  The body's most abundant mineral. Its primary function is to help build and maintain bones and teeth. Calcium is also important to heart health, nerves, muscles and skin. Calcium helps control blood acid-alkaline balance, plays a role in cell division, muscle growth and iron utilization, activates certain enzymes, and helps transport nutrients through cell membranes. Calcium also forms a cellular cement called ground substance that helps hold cells and tissues together.

Cartilage:  Specialized fibrous connective tissue that forms the skeleton of an embryo and much of the skeleton in an infant. As the child grows, the cartilage becomes bone. In adults, cartilage is present in and around joints and makes up the primary skeletal structure in some parts of the body, such as the ears and the tip of the nose.

Cholesterol:  A waxy, fat-like substance manufactured in the liver and found in all tissues, it facilitates the transport and absorption of fatty acids. In foods, only animal products contain cholesterol. An excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

Cirrhosis:  A long-term disease in which the liver becomes covered with fiber-like tissue. This causes the liver tissue to break down and become filled with fat. All functions of the liver then decrease, including the production of glucose, processing drugs and alcohol, and vitamin absorption. Stomach and bowel function, and the making of hormones are also affected.

Diabetes Mellitus:  A disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin. Diabetes is found in two forms; insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile-onset) and non-insulin-dependent (adult-onset). Symptoms include increased thirst; increased urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness. Other symptoms include bleeding gums; ear noise/buzzing; diarrhea; depression; confusion.

Dyskinesia:  A condition characterized by spasmodic, uncoordinated, or other abnormal movements; i.e., those which result from a reaction to phenothiazines.

Glucose:  A sugar that is the simplest form of carbohydrate. It is commonly referred to as blood sugar. The body breaks down carbohydrates in foods into glucose, which serves as the primary fuel for the muscles and the brain.

Hemoglobin:  The oxygen-carrying protein of the blood found in red blood cells.

High-Density Lipoprotein:  (HDL): Also known as "good" cholesterol, HDLs are large, dense, protein-fat particles that circulate in the blood picking up already used and unused cholesterol and taking them back to the liver as part of a recycling process. Higher levels of HDLs are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease because the cholesterol is cleared more readily from the blood.

Insidious:  A symptom or condition of gradual onset or development.

Iron:  An essential mineral. Prevents anemia: as a constituent of hemoglobin, transports oxygen throughout the body. Virtually all of the oxygen used by cells in the life process are brought to the cells by the hemoglobin of red blood cells. Iron is a small but most vital, component of the hemoglobin in 20,000 billion red blood cells, of which 115 million are formed every minute. Heme iron (from meat) is absorbed 10 times more readily than the ferrous or ferric form.

Low-Density Lipoprotein:  (LDL): Also known as "bad" cholesterol, LDLs are large, dense, protein-fat particles composed of a moderate proportion of protein and a high proportion of cholesterol. Higher levels of LDLs are associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.

Manganese:  An essential mineral found in trace amounts in tissues of the body. Adults normally contain an average of 10 to 20mg of manganese in their bodies, most of which is contained in bone, the liver and the kidneys. Manganese is essential to several critical enzymes necessary for energy production, bone and blood formation, nerve function and protein metabolism. It is involved in the metabolism of fats and glucose, the production of cholesterol and it allows the body to use thiamine and Vitamin E. It is also involved in the building and degrading of proteins and nucleic acid, biogenic amine metabolism, which involves the transmitting of nerve impulses.

Metabolism:  The chemical processes of living cells in which energy is produced in order to replace and repair tissues and maintain a healthy body. Responsible for the production of energy, biosynthesis of important substances, and degradation of various compounds.

Milligram:  (mg): 1/1,000 of a gram by weight.

Mineral:  Plays a vital role in regulating many body functions. They act as catalysts in nerve response, muscle contraction and the metabolism of nutrients in foods. They regulate electrolyte balance and hormonal production, and they strengthen skeletal structures.

Mucopolysaccharides:  Carbohydrates that act as support structures in connective tissue in the body.

Neural Tube:  The tube of tissue that lies along the central axis of the early embryo. It gives rise to the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the central nervous system.

Neurotransmitters:  Chemicals in the brain that aid in the transmission of nerve impulses. Various Neurotransmitters are responsible for different functions including controlling mood and muscle movement and inhibiting or causing the sensation of pain.

Noradrenaline:  (Norepinephrine): A catecholamine hormone secreted from the adrenal medulla and post-ganglionic adrenergic fibers in response to hypotension or emotional stress.

Osteochondrosis:  The osteochondroses, also called Epiphyseal Ischemic Necrosis, are a relatively common group of orthopedic disorders of children, which are poorly understood. In an osteochondrosis, the epiphysis (growing end) of a bone dies and then is gradually replaced over a period of years, resulting in abnormal bone growth and deformity. The immediate cause of bone death is loss of blood supply, but why this occurs remains unclear.

Osteoporosis:  A disease in which bone tissue becomes porous and brittle. The disease primarily affects postmenopausal women.

Perthes Disease:  Also known as Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (capital femoral epiphysis). The most common osteochondrosis, which occurs in the head of the thighbone, which dies and is then gradually replaced over a period of years. It occurs in youngsters aged 3-13 and is much more frequent in boys than in girls. Persistent pain is the most prominent symptom. Uncorrected severe cases lead to arrest of growth, deformity, and arthritic changes in the hip joint.

Seizure:  While there are over 40 types of seizure, most are classed as either partial seizures which occur when the excessive electrical activity in the brain is limited to one area or generalized seizures which occur when the excessive electrical activity in the brain encompasses the entire organ. Although there is a wide range of signs, they mainly include such things as falling to the ground; muscle stiffening; jerking and twitching; loss of consciousness; an empty stare; rapid chewing/blinking/breathing. Usually lasting from between a couple of seconds and several minutes, recovery may be immediate or take up to several days.

Serotonin:  A phenolic amine neurotransmitter (C10H12N2O) that is a powerful vasoconstrictor and is found especially in the brain, blood serum and gastric membranes of mammals. Considered essential for relaxation, sleep, and concentration.

Serum:  The cell-free fluid of the bloodstream. It appears in a test tube after the blood clots and is often used in expressions relating to the levels of certain compounds in the blood stream.

Triglyceride:  The main form of fat found in foods and the human body. Containing three fatty acids and one unit of glycerol, triglycerides are stored in adipose cells in the body, which, when broken down, release fatty acids into the blood. Triglycerides are fat storage molecules and are the major lipid component of the diet.

Vitamin B6:  Influences many body functions including regulating blood glucose levels, manufacturing hemoglobin and aiding the utilization of protein, carbohydrates and fats. It also aids in the function of the nervous system.

Zinc:  An essential trace mineral. The functions of zinc are enzymatic. There are over 70 metalloenzymes known to require zinc for their functions. The main biochemicals in which zinc has been found to be necessary include: enzymes and enzymatic function, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Zinc is a constituent of insulin and male reproductive fluid. Zinc is necessary for the proper metabolism of alcohol, to get rid of the lactic acid that builds up in working muscles and to transfer it to the lungs. Zinc is involved in the health of the immune system, assists vitamin A utilization and is involved in the formation of bone and teeth.