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Healthy

  Increased Fruit/Vegetable Consumption  
 
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According to statistics, Americans are chronically lacking in fruits and vegetables in their diet. Fruits and vegetables are vital for good health and are outstanding sources of essential vitamins and minerals. In addition they provide other dietary compounds with powerful chronic disease risk reduction potential. Based on growing scientific evidence, the incidence of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and stroke can be reduced through increased fruit and vegetable consumption, as can that of the major cancers of the Western world such as cancer of the stomach, lung, mouth, esophagus, colon and rectum. Fruit and vegetables also play a preventive role in birth defects, cataract formation, hypertension, asthma, diverticulosis, obesity and diabetes.

If you need to increase your fruit and vegetable intake but are finding it hard to do at this time, Ruby Reds is an example of a dietary supplement made from fruits and vegetables that can help make up the difference. Unlike vitamin pills, Ruby Reds is made from real foods. Ruby Reds is a nutritious power pack of fruit and vegetable concentrates, enhanced with key factors like probiotics, enzymes, fiber and grape seed extract.
 

 
 

Increased Fruit/Vegetable Consumption can help with the following:
 
 
Aging  Premature/Signs of Aging
 If your typical meal is dominated by food that is white, brown and gray then what you are eating is probably making you old. Instead, think "color and crunch." Eat meals that are dominated by juicy, crunchy foods rich in reds, oranges, purples and greens.

  Alzheimer's Disease
 News from the Telegraph U.K. says scientists have found that blueberries can increase your attention span in the short term and can maintain a healthy mind in the long term.

According to the report, they found that just one 200g blueberry smoothie was enough to increase powers of concentration by as much as 20 % over the day, and regular consumption of the fruit could lead to a rewiring of a part of the brain that is linked to memory.

The fruit, which is an anti-oxidant, has already been linked to lower heart disease and cancer rates as well as anti-aging. Antioxidants remove free radicals - chemicals that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body.

Dr. Jeremy Spencer, a molecular nutritionist at the University of Reading who carried out the latest study, is quoted as saying he believes its affect on the mind has more to do with its ability to increase the blood flow to the brain, and that flavonoid rich foods, which also include chocolate, spinach and some fruit juices, can re-structure the brain and ward off memory loss associated with Alzheimer's. [reported at the British Science Festival, Sept 2009]

  Senile Dementia
 News from the Telegraph U.K. says scientists have found that blueberries can increase your attention span in the short term and can maintain a healthy mind in the long term.

According to the report, they found that just one 200g blueberry smoothie was enough to increase powers of concentration by as much as 20 % over the day, and regular consumption of the fruit could lead to a rewiring of a part of the brain that is linked to memory.

The fruit, which is an anti-oxidant, has already been linked to lower heart disease and cancer rates as well as anti-aging. Antioxidants remove free radicals - chemicals that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body.

Dr. Jeremy Spencer, a molecular nutritionist at the University of Reading who carried out the latest study, is quoted as saying he believes its affect on the mind has more to do with its ability to increase the blood flow to the brain, and that flavonoid rich foods, which also include chocolate, spinach and some fruit juices, can re-structure the brain and ward off memory loss associated with Alzheimer's. [reported at the British Science Festival, Sept 2009]

  Parkinson's Disease / Risk
 Fruit is a good source of antioxidants.

  Cataracts / Risk
 People with low blood levels of antioxidants and those who eat few antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables have been reported to be at high risk for cataracts.

Some - but not all - studies have reported that eating more fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene was associated with a lower risk of cataracts. It remains unclear whether natural beta-carotene from food or supplements would protect the eye or whether beta-carotene in food is merely a marker for other protective factors in fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene.

Allergy

  Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever
 Fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, plenty of water and fresh juices are all recommended.

If you want to lower your child's risk of having hay fever you should seriously consider giving him/her a Mediterranean diet, say researchers. Scientists found that children who followed a Mediterranean diet had a 30% lower risk of developing hay fever. It seems, say the researchers, that the diet is not only good for adults, but also for kids.

The researchers found that children who eat a normal Mediterranean diet were 30% less likely to develop hay fever, while those who also consumed very large quantities of fruit while on the Mediterranean diet were over 60% less likely to develop hay fever.

Previous studies have indicated that the Mediterranean diet may reduce your chances of developing diabetes type 2, hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease and several cancers.

In this study the researchers looked at 690 schoolchildren in Crete, Greece - they were aged 1-18 years. Their parents filled in questionnaires about their kids eating habits and allergic conditions. All the children were tested for the ten most common allergy causes. About 30% of children have allergies, of which half should have symptoms. However, in Crete 30% did have allergies but virtually none of them exhibited symptoms, such as asthma, runny nose and itchy eyes. This anomaly is virtually unheard of, said Paul Cullinan, U.K. National Heart and Lung Institute, one of the authors of the study.

Nearly all the children in the study ate fresh tomatoes and several types of fruit at least weekly, while over half of them consumed them daily. Most of the children ate nuts regularly. [Protective effect of fruits, vegetables and the Mediterranean diet on asthma and allergies among children in Crete Published Online First: 5 April 2007. by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society]

Autoimmune

Not recommended for:
  Crohn's Disease
 In one trial, patients (rather than doctors) were asked which foods aggravated Crohn’s disease symptoms. Those without an ileostomy said that raw fruit and tomatoes were among the most problematic foods, though responses varied from person to person, and other reports have come up with different lists. People with Crohn’s disease wishing to identify and avoid potential problem foods should consult a doctor.

Circulation

  Increased Risk of Stroke
 Consuming at least 3 servings per day of fruit and vegetables was associated with reduced risk of stroke and death from stroke, ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular disease in a study of over 9,000 adults, free of cardiovascular disease at the beginning of a 19 year study.[Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1): pp.93-99]

  Hypertension
 Fruit and vegetable consumption (minimum of five portions daily) was associated with modest reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in a controlled study of 690 healthy people ages 25-64. [Lancet May 28, 2002]

  Atherosclerosis
 A diet high in fiber helps prevent coronary heart disease. Eating fruits high in the soluble fiber pectin has also been linked with reduced cholesterol levels, which protects against atherosclerosis.

  Congestive Heart Failure
 Whole fruit and fruit and vegetable juice, both high in potassium, are recommended by some doctors for congestive heart failure (CHF). This dietary change should, however, be discussed with a healthcare provider because several drugs given to people with CHF can actually cause retention of potassium, making dietary potassium, even from fruit, dangerous. Bananas are a rich source of potassium and need to be avoided in persons taking potassium-sparing diuretics.

  Bruising Susceptibility
 Many people eat insufficient amounts of foods containing vitamin C; the disease caused by vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, causes easy bruising. While very few people actually have scurvy, even minor deficiencies of vitamin C can increase bruising. Fruits are common dietary sources of vitamin C.

Diet

  Low Fiber Intake
  Excess Sugar Consumption
 Fruit can often be used as a natural replacement for sugar, for example raisins or dates to sweeten baked goods, bananas on cereal, or pure fruit juice to replace soft drinks and thus avoid the refined sugars within.

  Dehydration

Not recommended for:
  Fruit / Vegetable Intake

Digestion

  Constipation
 Raisins have a mild laxative effect. They soften the stool and speed transit time through the colon. Prunes are even more widely recognized for this effect.

Infections

Not recommended for:
  Yeast / Candida
 Based on their clinical experience and on very preliminary research, several doctors have suggested that a number of dietary factors may promote the overgrowth of Candida. Dried fruits, which are high in sugar, have been blamed for contributing to promotion of Candida overgrowth. Sugars avoidance is a standard recommendation on any anti-candidal diet.

Inflammation

  Chronic Inflammation
 Fruits and vegetable intake is important for reducing crp levels. It is thought that the fiber content helps to do this, though psyllium failed to do so in a study of overweight individuals without heart disease. [Annals of Family Medicine, March/April 2008]

Lab Values

  Low Total Cholesterol
  Elevated Total Cholesterol
 Soluble fiber from fruit pectin has lowered cholesterol levels in most trials. Doctors often recommend that people with elevated cholesterol eat more foods high in soluble fiber.

Mental

  Poor Memory
 Animal study: One group of young rats were fed a diet supplemented with a 2% blueberry extract while another group was fed the same diet without the extract. Author's conclusion: Blueberries contain a particular group of as-yet unidentified bioactive chemicals that reduce the functional consequences of brain damage, including a loss of the ability to learn or remember recent events.

Metabolic

  Blood Type A
  Metabolic Diet Type
  Hypoglycemia
 Fruit contains several things that are of benefit, including a sugar (fructose) that does not cause wild glucose swings, trace minerals, and fiber which slows glucose absorption. However, some people find that fruits do make their glucose intolerance worse. Vegetables, especially low starch vegetables like tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, broccoli and carrots are low in carbohydrate and high in nutrients.

  Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)
 Researchers at Scripps Clinic of San Diego divided a group of 100 obese subjects into three equal groups: one group ate
half a grapefruit before each meal, one group drank a glass of grapefruit juice before each meal, and one group was
instructed not to eat any grapefruit or drink any grapefruit juice. Subjects followed their regimens for three months,
while continuing to eat as they normally would.

The results were striking. Those in the group that ate grapefruit with each meal lost an average of 3.6 pounds. Subjects in the grapefruit juice group lost an average of 3.3 pounds. A few of the subjects in both of these groups lost nearly 10 pounds. Meanwhile, the average weight loss in the group that consumed no grapefruit was less than one pound.

Researchers believe that grapefruit contains chemical properties that assist in the management of insulin levels - a potential boon to dieters and diabetics alike. At the beginning and the completion of the Scripps study, researchers measured the insulin and glucose levels of all subjects. When the test was over, those in the two grapefruit groups had lower levels of insulin and glucose than they did at the beginning, while levels in the non-grapefruit group were unchanged.

  Problem Caused By Being Overweight
 Large amounts of fruit high in fructose should be avoided. Fructose induces insulin resistance, promoting weight gain. Reduced fruit and increased vegetable intake is advised.


Not recommended for:
  Hyperkalemia (Elevated Serum Potassium)
 Patients on potassium-restricted diets should avoid these foods, or eat them sparingly, as advised by their nutritionist / doctor.

HIGH potassium (more than 225 milligrams per 1/2 c. serving)
All meats, poultry and fish are high in potassium.
Apricots (fresh more so than canned)
Avocado
Banana
Cantaloupe
Honeydew
Kiwi
Lima beans
Milk
Oranges and orange juice
Potatoes (can be reduced to moderate by soaking peeled, sliced potatoes overnight before cooking)
Prunes
Spinach
Tomatoes
Vegetable juice
Winter squash

Persons restricting their potassium might be cautioned to include no more than one or two servings from this list per day, depending on their medical restrictions.

Moderate potassium (125 - 225 mg per serving)
Apple juice
Asparagus
Beets
Blackberries
Broccoli
Carrots
Cherries
Corn
Eggplant
Grapefruit
Green peas
Loose-leaf lettuce
Mushrooms, fresh
Onions
Peach
Pears
Pineapple
Raisins
Raspberries
Strawberries
Summer squash, including zucchini
Tangerines
Watermelon

Musculo-Skeletal

  Rheumatoid Arthritis
 Please see the link between RA and Vegetarian Diet.

  Gout / Hyperuricemia
 Dark berries may contain chemicals that lower uric acid and reduce inflammation. Especially recommended are cherries. Liberal amounts (up to 1 pound per day) of cherries, blueberries, and other anthocyanoside-rich (i.e. red-blue) berries or extracts should be consumed. Consuming fresh or canned cherries has been shown to be very effective in lowering uric acid levels and preventing attacks of gout. Cherries, hawthorn berries, blueberries, and other dark red-blue berries are rich sources of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins. These compounds are flavonoid molecules that give these fruits their deep red-blue color, and are remarkable in their ability to prevent collagen destruction.

Nutrients

  Hypokalemia / Potassium Need
 Fruit and vegetables are a good natural source of potassium. The best sources are: all meats, poultry and fish. These, along with the following are all high in potassium. Fresh apricots, avocado, banana, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, kiwi, lima beans, milk, oranges and orange juice, potatoes, prunes, spinach, tomatoes, vegetable juice and winter squash .

Organ Health

  Macular Degeneration
 There is evidence that eating fresh fruits and dark green, leafy vegetables (such as spinach and collard greens) may delay or reduce the severity of age-related macular degeneration.

  Diabetes Type II
 Eating carbohydrate-containing foods, including some fruits, temporarily raises blood sugar and insulin levels. On the other hand, a diet rich in the soluble fiber found in fruit may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, despite the high carbohydrate content of most fruit.

High-fiber supplements, such as pectin from fruit, have been found to improve glucose tolerance in some studies. A review of the research revealed that the extent to which moderate amounts of fiber help people with diabetes in the long term is still unknown, and the lack of many long-term studies has led some researchers to question the importance of fiber in improving diabetes. Nonetheless, most doctors advise people with diabetes to eat a diet high in fiber. Focus should be placed on fruits, vegetables, seeds, oats and whole-grain products.

The diet plan to reverse diabetes and enable patients to eliminate their dependence on drugs is one derived from vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes. The diabetic, who is even more sensitive to the harmful effects of the modern diet, should take care to consume a natural plant-based diet with an abundance of raw vegetables in the form of large salads every day.

  Increased Risk of Diabetes ll
 Eating carbohydrate-containing foods, including some fruits, temporarily raises blood sugar and insulin levels. On the other hand, a diet rich in the soluble fiber found in fruit may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, despite the high carbohydrate content of most fruit.

High-fiber supplements, such as pectin from fruit, have been found to improve glucose tolerance in some studies. A review of the research revealed that the extent to which moderate amounts of fiber help people with diabetes in the long term is still unknown, and the lack of many long-term studies has led some researchers to question the importance of fiber in improving diabetes. Nonetheless, most doctors advise people with diabetes to eat a diet high in fiber. Focus should be placed on fruits, vegetables, seeds, oats and whole-grain products.

The diet plan to reverse diabetes and enable patients to eliminate their dependence on drugs is one derived from vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes. The diabetic, who is even more sensitive to the harmful effects of the modern diet, should take care to consume a natural plant-based diet with an abundance of raw vegetables in the form of large salads every day.

  COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
 A diet high in antioxidants may protect against the free-radical-damaging effect of environmental toxins or cigarette smoke. Studies comparing different populations have shown that increasing fruit consumption appears to reduce the risk of developing chronic bronchitis.

Respiratory

  Asthma
 Vitamin C, present in fruits, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Its anti-inflammatory activity may decrease the incidence of asthma symptoms. A large preliminary study has shown that young children with asthma experience significantly less wheezing if they eat a diet high in fruits rich in vitamin C.

Dietary consumption of apples and selenium intake (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were each associated with a reduced risk of asthma in a case-control study (607 cases and 864 controls) of adults aged 16-50 in England. [Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(10): pp.1823-1828]

Also see the link between Asthma and Soy regarding apples and pears.

If you want to lower your child's risk of having hay fever you should seriously consider giving him/her a Mediterranean diet, say researchers. Scientists found that children who followed a Mediterranean diet had a 30% lower risk of developing hay fever. It seems, say the researchers, that the diet is not only good for adults, but also for kids.

The researchers found that children who eat a normal Mediterranean diet were 30% less likely to develop hay fever, while those who also consumed very large quantities of fruit while on the Mediterranean diet were over 60% less likely to develop hay fever.

Previous studies have indicated that the Mediterranean diet may reduce your chances of developing diabetes type 2, hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease and several cancers.

In this study the researchers looked at 690 schoolchildren in Crete, Greece - they were aged 1-18 years. Their parents filled in questionnaires about their kids eating habits and allergic conditions. All the children were tested for the ten most common allergy causes. About 30% of children have allergies, of which half should have symptoms. However, in Crete 30% did have allergies but virtually none of them exhibited symptoms, such as asthma, runny nose and itchy eyes. This anomaly is virtually unheard of, said Paul Cullinan, U.K. National Heart and Lung Institute, one of the authors of the study.

Nearly all the children in the study ate fresh tomatoes and several types of fruit at least weekly, while over half of them consumed them daily. Most of the children ate nuts regularly. [Protective effect of fruits, vegetables and the Mediterranean diet on asthma and allergies among children in Crete Published Online First: 5 April 2007. by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society]

Most teenagers in the United States and Canada don't choose to eat fish and fruit nearly as often as they choose burgers and chips. Now, a study of more than 2,100 teens conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health and Health Canada has found that those who eat the least fruit and fish have the weakest lungs.

"Most of the adolescents in our study had dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, vitamin E, and omega-3 fatty acids below recommended daily levels," said Jane Burns, a researcher at the Harvard School of Public Health. Fish are high in healthful omega-3 fatty acids.

"Low intakes were associated with lower lung function and increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis," said Burns. About 20 percent of people under 18 years old cough, wheeze and suffer from asthma and bronchitis. [Environment News Service, August 1, 2007]

Risks

  Cancer / Risk - General Measures
 Consumption of fruits is widely accepted as lowering the risk of most common cancers except prostate cancer. Many doctors recommend that people wishing to reduce their risk of cancer eat several pieces of fruit and several portions of vegetables every day. Optimal intakes remain unknown.

Traditionally, apple peels have been considered healthy because of their fiber content, as the peel contains about 75 percent of the dietary fiber in an apple. But a recent study has shown that the peel also contains most of the beneficial phytochemicals responsible for apples' anticarcinogenic effects.

Scientists processed more than 200 pounds of Red Delicious apples, and extracted phytochemicals from about 24 pounds of peel. They screened the compounds for anti-cancer effects in laboratory cultures of human liver, breast, and colon cancer cells, and identified a group of compounds with potent anti-cancer properties.

Specifically, 13 triterpenoids from the peels of Red Delicious apples were identified and confirmed to be highly effective against cancer. Exactly how and why these biochemicals seek and destroy cancer cells is still unknown.

Apple consumption has previously been linked to a reduced risk of lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. [Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 11, May 30, 2007: pp. 4366-4370]

  Increased Risk of Alzheimer's / Dementia
 News from the Telegraph U.K. says scientists have found that blueberries can increase your attention span in the short term and can maintain a healthy mind in the long term.

According to the report, they found that just one 200g blueberry smoothie was enough to increase powers of concentration by as much as 20 % over the day, and regular consumption of the fruit could lead to a rewiring of a part of the brain that is linked to memory.

The fruit, which is an anti-oxidant, has already been linked to lower heart disease and cancer rates as well as anti-aging. Antioxidants remove free radicals - chemicals that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body.

Dr. Jeremy Spencer, a molecular nutritionist at the University of Reading who carried out the latest study, is quoted as saying he believes its affect on the mind has more to do with its ability to increase the blood flow to the brain, and that flavonoid rich foods, which also include chocolate, spinach and some fruit juices, can re-structure the brain and ward off memory loss associated with Alzheimer's. [reported at the British Science Festival, Sept 2009]

  Increased Risk of Coronary Disease / Heart Attack
 A diet high in fruits appears protective against heart disease. The total number of deaths from cardiovascular disease was found to be significantly lower among men with high fruit consumption in one study. A large study of male healthcare professionals found that those men eating mostly a “prudent” diet (high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, fish, and poultry) had a 30% lower risk of heart attacks compared to men who ate the fewest foods in the “prudent” category. A parallel study of female healthcare professionals showed a 15% reduction in cardiovascular risk when they ate a diet high in fruits and vegetables compared to the effect of a low fruit and vegetable diet.

Consuming at least 3 servings per day of fruit and vegetables was associated with reduced risk of ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular disease in a study of over 9,000 adults, free of cardiovascular disease at the beginning of a 19 year long study.[Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1): pp.93-99]

  Increased Risk of Colon Cancer
 The fiber of choice for prevention of colorectal cancer seems to be psyllium, pectin or guar gum. The amount of pectin in approximately two servings of fruit rich in pectin such as pears, apples, grapefruit, and oranges is 15gm. Psyllium or guar gum are obtained by supplement. The RDA of total fiber is 20-30gm. In Scotland, where the average fiber intake is 2-3gm per day, there is a very high incidence of colon cancer.

For years, dietary fiber has been promoted by nutrition researchers and practitioners for colon cancer prevention. However, in two recent studies high-fiber diets did not decrease risks of colon cancer. The two studies are significant contributions to the literature, but they can not and do not close the discussion. If anything, they underscore the real need for further research and analysis.

Both studies, for example, involved only short-term (four-year) adjustments to the diet. One of them involved the use of wheat bran. Colon cancer is a disease that can take decades to develop. Convincing epidemiological evidence suggests that a healthy diet has its greatest preventive effect as a lifelong commitment, not a stopgap measure. While wheat bran does not appear to provide any protective benefit, a high fruit and vegetable diet may still provide benefit in preventing colorectal cancer.

Dr. Tim Byers, M.D., M.P.H. from the University of Colorado School of Medicine stated in the same issue of NEJM that "...observational studies around the world continue to find that the risk of colorectal cancer is lower among populations with high intakes of fruits and vegetables and that the risk changes on adoption of a different diet, but we still do not understand why." [NEJM, January 22, 1999, NEJM 342: pp.1149-55, pp.1156-62, 2000.]

Skin-Hair-Nails

Not recommended for:
  Eczema
 Eczema can be triggered by allergies, and according to data from double-blind research most children with eczema have food allergies. However, classical food allergens are often not the cause of eczema in adults. A variety of substances have been shown, in a controlled trial, to trigger eczema reactions in susceptible individuals; avoidance of these substances, such as aromatic compounds found in fruits, has similarly been shown to improve eczema. These reactions do not represent true food allergies, but are instead a type of food sensitivity reaction. The authors of this study did not identify which substances are the most common triggers of the condition.

Tumors, Malignant

  Breast Cancer
 A meta-analysis of 12 separate studies comparing breast cancer risk to diet found that high consumption of fruit was associated with a 6% reduction of breast cancer compared to low consumption.

Uro-Genital

  Possible Pregnancy-Related Issues
 Women who eat vegetables such as potatoes and turnips while pregnant may increase their child’s risk of developing diabetes, according to a study on mice. Now, researchers have found that bafilomycin, a toxin found in some bacteria called streptomyces that infect vegetables such as potatoes, sugar beets, turnips and radishes, may be a trigger for type 1 diabetes in children who are genetically susceptible. The toxin, which cannot be destroyed through cooking, appeared to affect the development of the pancreas, which could cause type 1 diabetes in susceptible persons, according to researchers.

Finland, where potatoes are commonly eaten, and Sardinia, where people eat a lot of sugar beets, have the highest rates of diabetes in the world, researchers said. [The Australian June 9, 2003]

Eating apples while pregnant may give new meaning to an apple a day keeping the doctor away. Compelling new research has concluded that mothers who eat apples during pregnancy may protect their children from developing asthma later in life. The study was published in Thorax online April 2007.

This unique longitudinal study tracked dietary intake by nearly 2000 pregnant women, then examined the effects of the maternal diet on airway development in more than 1200 of their children five years later. Among a wide variety of foods consumed and recorded by the pregnant women, the researchers concluded that the children of mothers who ate apples had a significantly reduced risk for the development of asthma and childhood wheezing.

This study focuses on medical evaluations for asthma and related symptoms (i.e., wheezing) when the children were five years old. As a result of the evaluations cited in this research, other than apples, there were no consistent associations found between prenatal consumption of a range of healthful foods and asthma in the 1253 children who were evaluated.

Children of mothers who ate apples during pregnancy were much less likely to exhibit symptoms of asthma (including wheezing), say the researchers who hail from institutions in The Netherlands and Scotland. These same researchers previously reported positive associations between maternal consumption of vitamins A, E, D and zinc with reduced risk of asthma, wheeze and eczema in children.

The only other positive association found between prenatal food intake and risk reduction in the children was with fish, for which the researchers found that children of mothers who ate fish had a lowered incidence of doctor-confirmed eczema.
 
 


KEY
May do some good
Likely to help
Highly recommended
May have adverse consequences
Reasonably likely to cause problems







GLOSSARY

Asthma:  A lung disorder marked by attacks of breathing difficulty, wheezing, coughing, and thick mucus coming from the lungs. The episodes may be triggered by breathing foreign substances (allergens) or pollutants, infection, vigorous exercise, or emotional stress.

Atherosclerosis:  Common form of arteriosclerosis associated with the formation of atheromas which are deposits of yellow plaques containing cholesterol, lipids, and lipophages within the intima and inner media of arteries. This results in a narrowing of the arteries, which reduces the blood and oxygen flow to the heart and brain as well as to other parts of the body and can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or loss of function or gangrene of other tissues.

Cancer:  Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.

Cataract:  A steadily worsening disease of the eye in which the lens becomes cloudy as a result of the precipitation of proteins. Most cataracts are caused by the functions of the body breaking down. Eye trauma, such as from a puncture wound, may also result in cataracts.

Chronic:  Usually Chronic illness: Illness extending over a long period of time.

Colon:  The part of the large intestine that extends to the rectum. The colon takes the contents of the small intestine, moving them to the rectum by contracting.

Diabetes Mellitus:  A disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin. Diabetes is found in two forms; insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile-onset) and non-insulin-dependent (adult-onset). Symptoms include increased thirst; increased urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness. Other symptoms include bleeding gums; ear noise/buzzing; diarrhea; depression; confusion.

Diverticular Disease:  Some people develop small pouches (diverticula) that bulge outward through weak spots in the colon. Diverticulosis is the condition of having these pouches; diverticulitis is an inflammation or infection in these pouches. The conditions diverticulosis and diverticulitis are both referred to as diverticular disease. Diverticulosis may not cause any symptoms but could include mild cramps, bloating and constipation - all of which are common to other conditions such as IBS or ulcers. The most common symptoms of diverticulitis are abdominal pain and tenderness around the left side of the lower abdomen. When infection is the cause, fever, nausea, vomiting, chills, cramping and constipation may also occur.

Enzymes:  Specific protein catalysts produced by the cells that are crucial in chemical reactions and in building up or synthesizing most compounds in the body. Each enzyme performs a specific function without itself being consumed. For example, the digestive enzyme amylase acts on carbohydrates in foods to break them down.

Esophagus:  Commonly called the "food pipe", it is a narrow muscular tube, about nine and a half inches long, that begins below the tongue and ends at the stomach. It consists of an outer layer of fibrous tissue, a middle layer containing smoother muscle, and an inner membrane, which contains numerous tiny glands. It has muscular sphincters at both its upper and lower ends. The upper sphincter relaxes to allow passage of swallowed food that is then propelled down the esophagus into the stomach by the wave-like peristaltic contractions of the esophageal muscles. There is no protective mucosal layer, so problems can arise when digestive acids reflux into the esophagus from the stomach.

Hypertension:  High blood pressure. Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure because it adds to the workload of the heart, causing it to enlarge and, over time, to weaken; in addition, it may damage the walls of the arteries.

Mineral:  Plays a vital role in regulating many body functions. They act as catalysts in nerve response, muscle contraction and the metabolism of nutrients in foods. They regulate electrolyte balance and hormonal production, and they strengthen skeletal structures.

Stomach:  A hollow, muscular, J-shaped pouch located in the upper part of the abdomen to the left of the midline. The upper end (fundus) is large and dome-shaped; the area just below the fundus is called the body of the stomach. The fundus and the body are often referred to as the cardiac portion of the stomach. The lower (pyloric) portion curves downward and to the right and includes the antrum and the pylorus. The function of the stomach is to begin digestion by physically breaking down food received from the esophagus. The tissues of the stomach wall are composed of three types of muscle fibers: circular, longitudinal and oblique. These fibers create structural elasticity and contractibility, both of which are needed for digestion. The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin. To protect itself from being destroyed by its own enzymes, the stomach’s mucous lining must constantly regenerate itself.

Stroke:  A sudden loss of brain function caused by a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel that supplies the brain, characterized by loss of muscular control, complete or partial loss of sensation or consciousness, dizziness, slurred speech, or other symptoms that vary with the extent and severity of the damage to the brain. The most common manifestation is some degree of paralysis, but small strokes may occur without symptoms. Usually caused by arteriosclerosis, it often results in brain damage.