Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide, and remains a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in developing countries. In the United States, cervical cancer is relatively uncommon.

The incidence of invasive cervical cancer has declined steadily in the United States over the past few decades, but continues to rise in many developing countries. The change in the epidemiological trend in the United States has been attributed to mass screening with Papanicolaou (PAP) tests. Furthermore, cervical cancer is a preventable disease, primarily with newly approved human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and secondarily through treatment of preinvasive disease.

Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first, but later, you may have pelvic pain or bleeding from the vagina. It usually takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. Your health care provider can find abnormal cells by doing a Pap test – examining cells from the cervix under a microscope. By getting regular Pap tests and pelvic exams you can find and treat changing cells before they turn into cancer.

The treatment of cervical cancer varies with the stage of the disease. For early invasive cancer, surgery is the treatment of choice. In more advanced cases, radiation combined with chemotherapy is the current standard of care. In patients with disseminated disease, chemotherapy or radiation provides symptom palliation.


Conditions that suggest Cervical Cancer


HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

Women who are negative for HPV have little or no risk of developing cervical cancer.

Risk factors for Cervical Cancer

Symptoms - Cancer  

History of cervical cancer

Symptoms - Reproductive - Female Cycle  

Total/radical/partial hysterectomy or hysterectomy with one ovary or hysterectomy with both ovaries

Recommendations for Cervical Cancer




Strongly counter-indicative
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
May do some good
Highly recommended



Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.


The lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.

Pap Test

Papanicolaou test. Microscopic examination of cells collected from the vagina and cervix to test for uterine cancer or dysplasia.


A treatment of disease by any chemicals. Used most often to refer to the chemical treatments used to combat cancer cells.

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