The term stenosis means an abnormal narrowing of an opening. Any of several heart valves can be involved.
Mitral valve stenosis refers to a condition in the heart in which one of the valve openings has become narrow and restricts the flow of blood from the upper left chamber (left atrium) to the lower left chamber (left ventricle).
In the heart, the valve that regulates the flow of blood between the left atrium and the left ventricle is called the mitral valve. If the mitral valve is abnormally narrow, due to disease or birth defect, blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle is restricted. This restricted flow leads to an increase in the pressure of blood in the left atrium. Over a period of time, this back pressure causes fluid to leak into the lungs. It can also lead to an abnormal heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation), which further decreases the efficiency of the pumping action of the heart.
Mitral valve stenosis is almost always caused by rheumatic fever . As a result of rheumatic fever, the leaflets that form the opening of the valve are partially fused together. Mitral valve stenosis can also be present at birth. Babies born with this problem usually require surgery if they are to survive. Sometimes, growths or tumors can block the mitral valve, mimicking mitral valve stenosis.
If the restriction is severe, the increased blood pressure can lead to heart failure . The first symptoms of heart failure, which are fatigue and shortness of breath , usually appear only during physical activity. As the condition gets worse, symptoms may also be felt even during rest. A person may also develop a deep red coloring in the cheeks.
Mitral valve stenosis is usually detected by a physician listening to heart sounds. Normal heart valves open silently to permit the flow of blood. A stenotic valve makes a snapping sound followed by a “rumbling” murmur. The condition can be confirmed with a chest x ray and an electrocardiogram, both of which will show an enlarged atrium. Echocardiography , which produces images of the heart’s structure, is also helpful in making the diagnosis. If surgery is necessary, cardiac catheterization may be done to fully evaluate the heart before the operation.
Drug therapy may help to slow the heart rate, strengthen the heart beat, and control abnormal heart rhythm. Drugs such as beta blockers , calcium channel blockers , and digoxin may be prescribed. A drug that prevents abnormal blood clotting (anticoagulant) called warfarin (Coumadin) may be recommended. If drug therapy does not produce satisfactory results, valve repair or replacement may be necessary.
Signs, symptoms & indicators of Heart Valve Stenosis
Serious/moderate/mild heart murmur
Absence of heart murmur
Conditions that suggest Heart Valve Stenosis
(Suspected) rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is common worldwide and responsible for many cases of damaged heart valves.
Heart Valve Stenosis suggests the following may be present
Rheumatic Heart Disease
ThemMitral valve is most often affected with rheumatic heart disease, followed by mitral and aortic together, then aortic alone, then mitral, aortic, and tricuspid together.
|Strong or generally accepted link|
|Proven definite or direct link|
|Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative|
(Esophageal, GI tract): Narrowing.
A test that shows a tracing of the electrical conduction of the heart.
Pertaining to the heart, also, pertaining to the stomach area adjacent to the esophagus.
The body's most abundant mineral. Its primary function is to help build and maintain bones and teeth. Calcium is also important to heart health, nerves, muscles and skin. Calcium helps control blood acid-alkaline balance, plays a role in cell division, muscle growth and iron utilization, activates certain enzymes, and helps transport nutrients through cell membranes. Calcium also forms a cellular cement called ground substance that helps hold cells and tissues together.
A substance that prevents or delays blood clots (coagulation).