Increasing calories may be recommended for persons who are underweight, athletes who want to gain weight to enhance performance or those whose calorie needs are increased due to a poor health condition. Being underweight can be caused by heredity, a serious illness, not eating enough, or a combination of intense ongoing exercise and insufficient calories in the diet. Commonly it is caused by an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia. Severe depression can also affect the appetite, resulting in underconsumption and weight loss.


Conditions that suggest Underconsumption


Risk factors for Underconsumption


Symptoms - Food - Intake  

Insufficient calorific intake

Counter Indicators
Symptoms - Food - Intake  

Excess calorific intake

Symptoms - Metabolic  

Recent unexplained weight loss

Recommendations for Underconsumption



Therapeutic Fasting

An underweight condition may be benefitted by water fasting with subsequent weight gain. A state of chronic undereating should not be fasted.


Bioperine (Black Pepper)

Bioperine enhances nutrient absorption, an important factor when undernourished.


Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Proven definite or direct link
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
Highly recommended
May have adverse consequences


Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by excess control - a morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age and typically have amenorrhea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female teenagers are anorexic.

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by lack of control - abnormal eating behavior including dieting, vomiting, purging and particularly bingeing that is usually associated with normal weight or obesity (unlike anorexics, who tend to be considerably underweight). The syndrome is associated with guilt, depressed mood, low self-esteem and sometimes with childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism or promiscuity.

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