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  Hepatitis  
 
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Hepatitis is a serious inflammation of the liver. Viral hepatitis, the most common form, usually appears as type A, B, or C. Type B (HBV) and Type C (HCV) affect people of all ages. Hepatitis can result from long-term alcohol abuse, infection, or exposure to various chemicals and drugs. We are in the midst of an epidemic of Hepatitis B and C infections. Between 1% and 5% of the world's population is infected chronically with one or more of these two viruses. In some parts of the world, such as Egypt and the Far East, up to 15% of the normal population suffer from infections with these viruses. The Center for Disease Control estimates that 4 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis virus alone.

Because hepatitis is potentially very dangerous, a healthcare professional should be involved in its treatment. If hepatitis is suspected, your health care provider will feel and tap your chest and back to determine if your liver or spleen is enlarged or tender. Your provider will request a blood test, possibly a urine test and, in a few cases, a liver biopsy.

The different types of hepatitis have many similarities and are therefore discussed here as a whole. If you know that you are infected only with a particular form, you can safely skip to the appropriate section below.

HEPATITIS A
Infectious (viral) hepatitis type A (HAV), is the most common hepatitis, often affecting school children. Good hygiene is necessary to avoid spreading this infection. Epidemics are frequent, as the virus is spread easily through food that is handled by infected individuals and water; therefore, people with hepatitis A should wash their hands very carefully after using the restroom and should not handle food at work. It is contagious during the incubation period of 2-6 weeks but only for a few days once symptoms appear. It typically lasts for 4-8 weeks.

Unlike the other hepatitis types which are seen in all ages equally, hepatitis A in seen mostly in children and young adults. Immunity is life-long following infection. HAV does not become chronic like hepatitis B and C can, does not create a carrier state, and does not lead to chronic liver disease. Often, the disease may be so mild it is unrecognized. The vast majority (99%) of people infected with HAV get rid of the infection on their own, and fatalities are rare.

While there is no specific treatment for HAV (most of the treatments mentioned below are for the other types), supportive care is helpful while you fight the infection. Alcohol should be avoided. Coconut milk, not water, is antiviral and said to help in any hepatitis. Bed rest, lots of water, liver supportive herbs such as milk thistle or dandelion would be appropriate.

HEPATITIS B
Hepatitis B (HBV) is usually transmitted by injection of contaminated blood, through intravenous (IV) drug use, or through sexual activity. HBV can be transmitted during pregnancy or childbirth and is a known risk factor for primary liver cancer.

Following an acute infection caused by hepatitis B virus, fewer than 1% of patients develop fulminant hepatitis and die. 85 to 90% experience complete resolution of their physical findings and develop protective levels of antibody. 10 to 15% of patients become chronically infected. Of these, 15 to 30% subsequently develop chronic active or persistent hepatitis or cirrhosis, and about 20% of those with cirrhosis will develop liver cancer.

The following are risk factors, which your doctor should be told about:

  • Work in health care, such as in a medical laboratory or in dialysis
  • Engage in promiscuous unprotected sex
  • Inject drugs
  • Have a poor selenium status
  • Have a parent, sibling, or child infected with hepatitis
  • Live in or are exposed to unsanitary conditions
  • Consume possibly contaminated food or water
  • Eat or handle raw shellfish
HEPATITIS C
Hepatitis C (HCV) is spread by blood, most commonly through shared needle use, and may lead to a chronic carrier state. Carriers of hepatitis B and C often do not know that they are infected. Receiving a tattoo can also increase your risk of contracting the infection. HCV infections and other chronic viral infections are associated with a variety of immune system defects leading to effective transmission of the viruses through blood exposure and possibly sexual contact. HCV can be transmitted during pregnancy or childbirth.

Hepatitis C is a serious infection. If you do not make continued efforts at maintaining a significant level of liver health, a chronic degenerative process will take its toll eventually. Although the disease may be moderate in expression, a carrier state can follow in 10-50% of patients. Infection with Hepatitis B or C often leads to liver failure or liver cancer and is the leading indication for liver transplantation.

There are 6 known genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of hepatitis C. Patients with genotype 2 and 3 are almost three times more likely to respond to therapy with alpha interferon or the combination of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). Knowing the genotype also determines the recommended duration of treatment. For patients with genotype 2 and 3, a 24-week course of combination treatment is adequate, whereas for patients with genotype 1, a 48-week course is recommended. Genotypes do not need to be tested over again because they do not change during the course of an infection. Seventy percent of hepatitis C cases in the US are genotype 1.

The sustained response rate for IFN and RBC combined is 31% for 6 months of treatment and 38% for 12 months of treatment. [N Engl J Med, 1998] A greater viral load suggests that longer or higher dose therapy may be required. [Patients Network, Inc. May 8, 2000]

Examination of liver tissue under the microscope taken from patients with chronic active HCV infection has revealed the presence of NK cells. Indirect evidence for the importance of high NK cell function in limiting chronic hepatitis C infection was demonstrated by two studies of infected patients treated with alpha interferon. Patients that responded clinically to therapy also demonstrated significantly greater enhancement of NK activity than controls after the initial dose of interferon. NK activity was not improved in those who did not respond to treatment, indicating the importance of NK activity.

There are only limited conventional treatments for HCV: it is a disease that can be greatly benefited by natural therapies. Since the persistence of a virus is due in part to lowered immunity, non-toxic immune enhancers (especially those which stimulate NK cell function) should help to resolve or control the infection.

Several nutrients and herbs have been shown to inhibit viral reproduction, improve immune system function, and greatly stimulate regeneration of the damaged liver cells. A therapeutic approach should focus on both immune system enhancement and liver support.

Unlike other white blood cells, inadequate numbers of NK cells are rarely a problem. Instead, it is the activity of the cells that is important. NK activity can be significantly enhanced by natural products or drugs such as IP6 (Inositol hexaphosphate), MGN3 (a commercial rice bran product modified with mushroom extracts), thymus extracts, low dose Naltrexone, zinc, DHEA, glutamine, a good multiple vitamin-mineral over time and others such as astragalus, cordyceps (chinese fungus), and MCP (modified citrus pectin). NK activity can be impaired by surgery and chemotherapy. Moderate exercise does not depress the immune system, but very strenuous exercise does.

Other treatments that have been beneficial include the use of Vitamin C, liver extracts (which promote hepatic regeneration) and Reishi mushrooms. Licorice root, cysteine and glycine together have produced a 40% cure rate. Silymarin (milk thistle) reverses liver cell damage, increases protein level in the blood, lowers liver enzymes and generally improves symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, decreased appetite and fatigue.
 

 
 

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Hepatitis:
 
 
Lab Values - Cells  Macrocytic red cells
 Chronic hepatitis can cause large red blood cells.

Symptoms - Bowel Movements

  Pale stools

Symptoms - Environment

  (High) cigarette smoke sensitivity

Symptoms - Food - General

  Weak appetite

Symptoms - Gas-Int - General

  (Severe) abdominal discomfort
  Unexplained nausea
  Unexplained vomiting

Symptoms - General

  Constant fatigue

Counter-indicators:
  Not having constant fatigue

Symptoms - Head - Eyes/Ocular

Counter-indicators:
  Absence of jaundiced eyes

Symptoms - Liver / Gall Bladder

  (Severe) pain under right side of ribs

Symptoms - Metabolic

  Mild/moderate unexplained fevers or unexplained fevers that hit hard or unexplained high fevers
  Having a high/having a moderate/having a slight fever

Symptoms - Skin - General

  Red palms/fingertips
 Red palms have been known to occur in cases of HVC when no other symptoms were present and very little liver damage had yet occurred.


Counter-indicators:
  Absence of yellow skin tone

Symptoms - Urinary

  Dark urine color
 Bile in urine causes a tea-like or mahogany color; usually from a liver disorder such as hepatitis.
 
 

Conditions that suggest Hepatitis:
 
 
Lab Values  A High White Count
  Low Platelet Count
 Hepatitis C may cause or contribute to a secondary ITP.

Metabolic

  Jaundice

Musculo-Skeletal

  General Weakness

Organ Health

  Cirrhosis of the Liver
 The hepatitis C virus ranks with alcohol as the major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the United States. Infection with this virus causes inflammation of and low grade damage to the liver that over several decades can lead to cirrhosis.

Hepatitis B is probably the most common cause of cirrhosis worldwide, but in the United States and Western world it is less common. Hepatitis B, like hepatitis C, causes liver inflammation and injury that over several decades can lead to cirrhosis.

The hepatitis D virus is another virus that infects the liver, but only in people who already have hepatitis B.

Symptoms - Liver / Gall Bladder

Counter-indicators:
  Absence of hepatitis B or C
 
 

Risk factors for Hepatitis:
 
 
Autoimmune  Ulcerative Colitis
 The immune system may trigger mild inflammation in the liver as a result of ulcerative colitis. This problem is usually mild and goes away when the colitis is treated.

  Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease
 Celiac disease has long been recognized as a cause of chronic liver pathology. [Lancet 1977;2(8032): pp.270-2]

Immunity

  Immune System Imbalance (TH2 Dominance)
 It has been suggested that an impaired TH1 immune response appears to favor chronicity of hepatitis C infections. Whether impaired activity of the NK cells in chronic HCV infections is due to a dominance of TH2 lymphocytes remains to be seen.

Lab Values - Chemistries

  Elevated liver enzymes
 An acute or chronic elevation of liver enzymes is often caused by infectious hepatitis. Hepatitis blood tests are available and commonly done when searching for the cause of elevated liver enzymes.

  Elevated ferritin levels
 Ferritin levels are elevated in acute hepatitis.


Counter-indicators:
  Normal liver enzyme levels
 An acute or chronic elevation of liver enzymes is often caused by infectious hepatitis. Hepatitis blood tests are available and commonly done when searching for the cause of elevated liver enzymes.

Medical Procedures

  Blood transfusions
 While transfusion-related HIV and hepatitis are now relatively rare events, emerging or unknown infections, transfusion errors, and immunomodulation remain compelling reasons to minimize the use of allogeneic transfusion.

Nutrients

  Selenium Requirement
 Selenium is essential for healthy immune functioning. A large-scale study has shown that selenium supplementation reduces the incidence of viral hepatitis in selenium-deficient populations, presumably by enhancing immune function. [Yu S-Y, Li W-G, Zhu Y-J, et al. Chemoprevention trial of human hepatitis with selenium supplementation in China. Biol Trace Element Res 1989;20: pp.15-20]

Symptoms - Gas-Int - General

  History of unexplained nausea

Symptoms - Metabolic

  Recent unexplained weight loss
 
 

Hepatitis can lead to:
 
 
Metabolic  Hemochromatosis (Iron overload)
 There have been reports that people with Hepatitis C have an increased risk of elevated iron levels. As such, it would be wise to run a serum ferritin test on anyone with Hepatitis C.

Musculo-Skeletal

  General Weakness

Nutrients

  Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/ Supplements
  Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/o Supplements

Risks

  Increased Risk of Liver Cancer
 A history of infection with the hepatitis B virus puts individuals at risk of developing heptoma.
 
 

Recommendations for Hepatitis:
 
 
Amino Acid / Protein  Glutathione
 Glutathione (500mg twice a day) or N-acetyl cysteine (200 mg two to three times per day) provide liver cleansing and antioxidant support.

Animal-based

  Thymic Factors
 Thymus extracts help immune cells mature and kill the virus as claimed by several clinical reports. Through his clinical experiences with thymic supplementation, Dr. Burgstiner observed that 84 cases of Hepatitis B and 34 cases of Hepatitis C were arrested, as well as the elimination of all traces of Hepatitis B infection in himself. Oral thymus extracts routinely raise thymosin alpha-1 serum levels.

However, thymosin alpha-1 treatment had no biochemical or virological effects in a meta-analysis of five placebo-controlled trials with a total of 353 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. [Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15(12): pp.1899-1905]

  Glandular / Live Cell Therapy
 A double-blind study conducted on 556 patients with chronic hepatitis concluded that liver extract is effective in the treatment of this disease through its ability to improve the function of damaged liver cells. [Fujissawa et al, 1984]

In one study involving 18 patients with hepatitis B, a complete cessation of viral replication was observed after six months of supplementation with thymus extract [Dworniak et al, 1991]. In another study involving 102 patients with chronic hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, thymus extract was able to significantly improve immune competence. [Radchenko et al, 1992]

Mesenchyme extract is derived from cells found in mammal extra-embryonic membranes. Mesenchymal cells differ from other cells in that, they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods, they are unspecialized, and they can give rise to various specialized cell types. These embryonic cells are a great source of various cell signaling factors (CSF). Mesenchymal CSFs can stimulate and support the production of local growth factors in any tissue repair process. Because of these unique attributes, supplementation with mesenchyme extract would be expected to help support the liver to regenerate itself in people with hepatitis.

One product, called Zepatix, produced by Atrium Biotech, contains all three of the above extracts. It is somewhat expensive, as might be expected, and must be shipped frozen to retain freshness.

  Colostrum / Transfer Factor
 Hepatitis Specific Transfer Factors from colostrum were used in 260 cases and a 100% clinical recovery was reported with no side effects. Immunological profiles were normalized in approximately half of the individuals at the end of the observation period. I have not been able to find a reference for this information, so it must be viewed with caution.

  Lactoferrin
 Researchers Ikeda, M. et al from the National Cancer Institute in Japan report that bovine lactoferrin directly binds to the HCV and effectively prevented hepatitis C in cultured human hepatocytes cell lines. They report on experiments which show that Lactoferrin directly binds to HCV and not to the infected cells. Other research has confirmed that lactoferrin binds to HCV and a number of other viruses. Lactoferrin is also a natural component of human mother’s milk which is also effective against HCV. Lactoferrin is available as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Adult dosage levels are usually 1000 to 1500mg or more daily. No adverse effects have been reported.

  Lactobacillus Acidophilus
 Supplementation with Acidophilus (one capsule with meals) helps keep healthy levels of the "good" bacteria in your body.

Botanical

  Silymarin/Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
 Silymarin, the flavonoid extracted from milk thistle, has been studied for treating all types of liver disease. For acute hepatitis, double-blind studies have shown mixed results.[1] [2] A preparation of silymarin complexed with phosphatidylcholine was reported to help sufferers of chronic viral hepatitis. One small pilot study found that at least 420mg of silymarin was necessary each day.[3] A controlled investigation found that silymarin decreased liver damage.[4] One study has suggested that silymarin may be more effective for hepatitis B as opposed to hepatitis C.[5]

Recent findings have shown that silymarin has the ability to block fibrosis, a process that contributes to the eventual development of cirrhosis in persons with inflammatory liver conditions secondary to alcohol abuse or hepatitis.[6] While there are no published clinical trials to date, this action makes milk thistle extract potentially attractive to persons with chronic hepatitis C - particularly those that have not responded to standard drug therapy.

Silybum Marianum (80% extract), 200 to 300mg three times per day, protects the liver. It may also be used as phosphatidylcholine-bound silymarin (100 to 150mg three times per day). In clinical trials, the silymarin-phosphatidylcholine complex has worked better than silymarin by itself for treating liver disorders. A key element in cell membranes, phosphatidylcholine helps the silymarin attach easily to the cell membranes.

[1] Magliulo E, Gagliardi B, Fiori GP. Results of a double blind study on the effect of silymarin in the treatment of acute viral hepatitis carried out at two medical centers. Med Klin 1978;73: pp.1060-5 [in German]
[2] Bode JC, Schmidt U, Durr HK. Silymarin for the treatment of acute viral hepatitis? Report of a controlled trial. Med Klin 1977;72: pp.513-8 [in German]
[3] Vailati A, Aristia L, Sozze E, et al. Fitoterapia 1993;64:219-27
[4] Buzzelli G, Moscarella S, Giusti A, et al. A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybinphosphatidylcholine complex (IdB 1016) in chronic active hepatitis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1993;31: pp.456-60
[5] Lirussi F, Okolicsanyi L. Cytoprotection in the nineties: experience with ursodeoxycholic acid and silymarin in chronic liver disease. Acta Physiol Hung 1992;80: pp.363-7
[6] Schuppan D, Strösser W, Burkard G, Walosek G. Legalon® lessens fibrosing activity in patients with chronic liver diseases. Zeits Allgemeinmed 1998;74: pp.577-84

  Dandelion Root (Taraxicum officinale)
  Artichoke Extract (Cynarin scolymus)
 Promotes liver regeneration.

  St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
 Interview with Dr. Bihari in Honest Medicine.

Q: You're also using it for Hepatitis C?


Dr. Bihari: Yes, I am. With Hepatitis C, it’s hard for me to identify how much it does, because I’m using it with purified extract of St. John’s Wart, the plant, in which an ingredient called hypericon has been extracted from the St. John’s Wart and added back in about twenty-two fold. So, since hypericon in the test tube is extremely effective against hepatitis C and hepatitis B, I had a company make this concentrated form up to use in treating people with those two kinds of hepatitis. And the combination of that with LDN looks very promising. It looks to me like the hypericon, the concentrated St. John’s Wart, looks to be the more important of the two ingredients. I think the naltrexone is helpful with any chronic infection, but the more dramatic element here is the hypericon. In the test tube, it really suppresses these two viruses. In people it seems to suppress hepatitis B and Hepatitis C growth and markedly improve liver function.

  Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus)
 Phyllanthus (use 200mg three times per day) has been studied primarily in carriers of the hepatitis B virus, as opposed to those with chronic active hepatitis. In one study, administering this herb for 30 days appeared to eliminate the hepatitis B virus in 22 of 37 cases (59%).[1] However, other studies have failed to confirm a beneficial effect of Phyllanthus amarus against hepatitis B.[2] [3] A West Indian species, Phyllanthus urinaria (not widely available in the United States or Europe), has achieved much better results than Indian Phyllanthus amarus.[4] Thus, the specific plant species used may have a significant impact on the results.

[1] Thyagarajan SP, Subramian S, Thirunalasundari T, et al. Effects of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1988;2: pp.764-6
[2] Doshi JC, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS, et al. A two-stage clinical trial of Phyllanthus amarus in hepatitis B carriers: Failure to eradicate the surface antigen. Indian J Gastroenterol 1994;13: pp.7-8
[3] Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Maunwongyathi P, et al. Failure of Phyllanthus amarus to eradicate hepatitis B surface antigen from symptomless carriers. Lancet 1990;335: pp.1600-1
[4] Wang M, Cheng H, Li Y, et al. Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: observations with three preparations from different geographical sites. J Lab Clin Med 1995;126: pp.350-2

  Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurroa)
 A series of cases of acute viral hepatitis were reported by one group in India, showing picrorhiza, combined with a variety of minerals, to be helpful in hastening recovery.[Chaturvedi GN, Singh RH. Jaundice of infectious hepatitis and its treatment with an indigenous drug, Picrorhiza kurrooa [sic]. J Res Ind Med 1966;1: pp.1-13]

A variety of similar reports have appeared in the Indian literature over the years. Between 400 and 1,500mg of powdered, encapsulated picrorhiza per day has been used in a variety of studies.

A tincture of picrorhiza protected rats against oxidation in the liver. [Anandan R, Devaki T. Hepatoprotective effect of Picrorrhiza [sic] kurroa on tissue defense system in D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats. Fitoterapia 1999;70: pp.54-7] This confirmed earlier evidence suggesting picrorhiza contains antioxidant glycosides. [Chander R, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN (1992) “Picroliv, picroside-I and kutkoside from Picrorhiza kurroa are scavengers of superoxide anions” Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44: pp.180-3]

  Schizandra Berry (Schizandra chinensis)
 Modern Chinese research suggests that compounds called lignans in schisandra promote regeneration of liver tissue that has been damaged by harmful influences, such as hepatitis viruses or alcohol. In a controlled trial, Chinese patients with chronic viral hepatitis were given 500mg schisandra extract three times daily or liver extract and B vitamins.

Among those given schisandra, serum levels glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels declined to normal levels in 68% compared to 44% of the control group. Lower SGPT levels suggest less liver inflammation. There was also a reduction in symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, loose stools, and abdominal tension in the schisandra group. An uncontrolled study in 5,000 persons with various types of hepatitis found normalizations in SGPT or related liver enzymes in 75% of cases using an unspecified amount of schisandra.

  Chinese Thoroughwax (Bupleurum falcatum)
 Contains steroid-like substances that reduce liver inflammation.

  Green / Oolong / BlackTea (Camellia sinensis)
 Green tea can decrease inflammation. 2 to 3 cups per day.

  Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)
  Eclipta Alba
 Usually used with Phyllanthus.

  Astragalus Root (Astragalus membrinaceus)
  Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
 250 to 500mg three times per day. Do not take licorice if you have high blood pressure. One of the active constituents in licorice, glycyrrhizin, is commonly used in Japan as an injected therapy for hepatitis B and C.[1] [2] Glycyrrhizin also blocks hepatitis A virus from replicating in test tubes.[3] It is not known whether oral licorice extracts that are high in glycyrrhizin are effective against hepatitis.

[1] Suzuki H, Ohta Y, Takino T, et al. Effects of glycyrrhizin on biochemical tests in patients with chronic hepatitis. Double blind trial. Asian Med J 1983;26: pp.423-38
[2] Yasuda K, Hino K, Fujioka S, et al. Effects of high dose therapy with Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) on hepatic histography in non-A, non-B chronic active hepatitis. In Viral Hepatitis C, D, E, ed. T Shikata, RH Purcell, T Uchida. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1991, pp.205-9
[3] Crance JM, L’eveque F, Biziagos E, et al. Studies on mechanism of action on glycyrrhizin against hepatitis A virus replication in vitro. Antiviral Res 1994;23: pp.63-76

  Chlorella / Algae Products
  Turmeric Extract, Curcumin
 250 to 500mg three times daily. Combine with Bromelain (250 to 500mg three times per day between meals) to enhance its effects.

  Coneflower (Echinacea purpura)

Diet

  Alcohol Avoidance
 When you drink alcohol, the liver treats it as a toxic substance and works to filter it out. In a person with Hepatitis C, alcohol significantly increases damage to the liver. All types of alcohol, including beer, wine, cocktails, and champagne, can damage your liver, and should be avoided.

  Processed Foods Avoidance
  Smaller, More Frequent Meals
 Small, frequent meals are suggested to optimize digestion.

  Caffeine/Coffee Avoidance
  Therapeutic Fasting
 Extended fasting should be avoided in cases of compromised liver function. However, people with Hepatitis C have juice fasted successfully and reported many benefits, including improved liver function.

Here is a testimony from one person with Hepatitis C who tried fasting.


"I picked up a Hepatitis-C virus from a blood transfusion in 1989. I was unaware of it at the time. This, compounded by poor eating and lifestyle habits, resulted in a gradual deterioration in my general health. I'd had a great fitness program, and I was consistent with it, but it gradually began to falter. I became unable to work out as much, I didn't recover as fast, and I began needing more and more bed rest. This continued for about three years, until I was nearly bedfast, sleeping often in excess of 14 hours per day, and totally unable to work out at all. I also suffered from a cognitive disorder I can only describe as 'having a cloud in my head.'

"During this time, I would have regular medical checkups. I complained that I felt tired. Doctors ran tests, but found nothing. They said, "You're okay." Eventually, things were so bad I began looking for second and third options--other doctors, who finally diagnosed Hepatitis-C and Chronic-Fatigue Immune-Deficiency Sydrome. They gave me Interferon for 6 months. It made me sick and poor, but not healthy. The end result? I had spent my living, and had suffered much at the hands of physicians, but grew no better, only worse. Western Medicine had no answers for me.

"I began studying alternative medicines and treatments. I went to a chiropractic nutritionist, and a homeopath. I got some relief there, but my nutritionist recommended a fasting clinic--water-fasting for a month, for detoxification (to remove the basic CAUSE of the problem). The cost, and relocation, would have set me back around $8,000. By this time, I'd been struggling for 5 years, my business was all but shot, and I didn't have the money.

"I was inspired with an idea: Search the Internet for information on fasting. Enter Dennis Paulson/Fastmaster, and Fasting Center International. I checked it out very thoroughly and decided to go for it. I opted for 66 days (my age figure plus 17, for complete detoxification). The total cost was $728.70 (most of which I saved on solid foods not taken during the 66-day Program). I was able to stay home and work. Amazingly, despite the fact I wasn't eating solid foods, my energy increased exponentially. I went from an estimated 3-5% energy leve--nearly bedfast--to an average of 65%, with peaks of 70-75%. . .once again able to run my business, as well as compose music (which I'd not done in two years). My weight dropped from 207 to 156 lbs. I lost 51 pounds in 56 days of actual fasting. I saved $7,271.30.

"I waited before writing this. I didn't want to be caught up in the excitement of the moment, and I wanted to see what would happen after the fast. Would the energy flag? Would I get fat again. . .put the weight back on? I wanted to see this, before I put my name on this page.

"Since the fast--one month--I have put on 7 pounds. This is exactly what I was told would happen (primarily fecal matter back into the colon). Net loss: 44 pounds. Energy level: 80-85%, with peaks to 90-92%, and my mind is clear, once again. Yes, I needed this. I needed to lose the toxic waste I'd dumped into ME for over 39 years. I no longer desire caffeine, or high-fat foods, or processed sugars. It's easy to eat right, NOW! This Program WORKS!!!

"Yes, I DID consider trying it on my own. . .save the 700 bucks. Why spend it? I've got a strong mind, and am a great do-it-yourself-and-save-a-buck kinda guy! Maybe I could teach myself. . .read a few books? I chose not to. I am grateful that I made that choice. In retrospect, I realize I could NOT have done it myself. Quite simply, I had no experience to gauge this experience by, and none of those books' authors were available for crisis-intervention questions. In my toxic condition, great and terrible amounts of toxic garbage were released into my system daily. Without the expert tutelage of Dennis Paulson, I'd never have made it.

  Vegetarian/Vegan Diet
 A more vegetarian diet is naturally lower in saturated fats (meat and dairy products) and higher in grains, vegetables, fruits, vegetable proteins (legumes such as soy), and essential fatty acids (cold-water fish, nuts, and seeds) that are all recommended for Hepatitis. Foods that support the liver are beets, artichokes, yams, onions, garlic, green leafy vegetables, apples, and lemons.

  Sugars Avoidance / Reduction
  Coconut
  Food Additive Avoidance
  Animal/Saturated Fats Avoidance

Drug

  Amantadine
 A study with Amantadine was performed at the Department of Medicine at the Milton S Hershey Medical Center by JP Smith on patients who had previously failed interferon-alpha 2b therapy. It found that in 22 patients with chronic hepatitis C given 100mg twice daily for an average of 32 months[Dig Dis Sci 1997 Aug;42(8): pp.1681-7], 64% of the patients had decreases in ALT values with 27% having normalization of ALT values and a loss of HCV RNA as measured by PCR. No side effects were reported.

  LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
 Interview with Dr. Bihari in Honest Medicine.

Q: You're also using it for Hepatitis C?


Dr. Bihari: Yes, I am. With Hepatitis C, it’s hard for me to identify how much it does, because I’m using it with purified extract of St. John’s Wart, the plant, in which an ingredient called hypericon has been extracted from the St. John’s Wart and added back in about twenty-two fold. So, since hypericon in the test tube is extremely effective against hepatitis C and hepatitis B, I had a company make this concentrated form up to use in treating people with those two kinds of hepatitis. And the combination of that with LDN looks very promising. It looks to me like the hypericon, the concentrated St. John’s Wart, looks to be the more important of the two ingredients. I think the naltrexone is helpful with any chronic infection, but the more dramatic element here is the hypericon. In the test tube, it really suppresses these two viruses. In people it seems to suppress hepatitis B and Hepatitis C growth and markedly improve liver function.

  Conventional Drugs / Information
 A news release in April, 2003 suggested that a new generation of drugs restores the immune response blocked by the hepatitis C virus, reducing the virus to nearly undetectable levels in a matter of days. This is according to researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and UT Medical Branch at Galveston.

"We found that the new protease inhibitors could actually prevent the virus from blocking this immune response and basically restore the innate antiviral response in human cells," said Dr. Michael Gale, assistant professor of microbiology at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study, published online today in Science Express. "Our conclusion is that these new drugs will have a dual efficacy."

Protease inhibitors, which are already undergoing clinical trials as therapies to treat chronic hepatitis C infections, target the enzymatic activity of the viral protease. Protease, an enzyme that can split a protein into component peptides, is required to process viral proteins into their functional forms.

November 02, 2006 - Saint Louis University Liver Center scientists are presenting research today on a more effective way to treat hepatitis C patients who have been unresponsive to current drug therapies.

They have shown that a cocktail of ribavirin and Infergen, a highly potent Interferon, is nearly twice as effective at controlling hepatitis C than standard treatments. They are sharing their findings at the annual American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases meeting in Boston.

"The results are promising," says Bruce R. Bacon, M.D., principal investigator and director of the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. "This group of non-responders is a very challenging population to treat, and we found that patients who followed through with the therapy had a response nearly twice that of previous trials looking at this population."

Saint Louis University Liver Center researchers led a study of more than 500 patients with hepatitis C at 40 sites, 77 percent of whom had advanced fibrosis. Fourteen percent of patients taking 9mcg of Infergen daily and 20 percent taking 15 mcg were virus negative after six months.

A quarter of the non-cirrhotic patients receiving Infergen were also virus negative after 24 weeks. The optimal response to antiviral therapy is for the hepatitis C viral RNA to become undetectable on treatment and to remain undetectable for at least another six months off therapy; this is referred to as a sustained virologic response, essentially a cure of the disease. Rates of sustained virologic response are still to be determined in this ongoing study.

Extract

  Plant Sterols / Sterolins (Phytosterols)
 People who contract the Hep C virus have an 85% chance of developing chronic hepatitis since the virus slowly destroys the liver. The damage is a result of the immune system attacking liver cells as it tries to destroy the virus. It is important for a person with Hep C to “modulate” or balance their immune system. Plant sterols and sterolins can help to:
  • increase the natural interferon (our virus killer) produced by the body. This helps in recognizing the Hep C virus and clearing it.
  • decrease the production of antibodies that are damaging liver cells.
  • decrease the inflammatory immune factors causing inflammation and damage to the liver.

  Catechin
 Catechin has helped people with acute viral hepatitis [1], as well as individuals with chronic hepatitis [2], though not all studies have found a benefit.[3] A typical amount used in successful trials is 500-750mg three times per day.

[1] Blum AL, Doelle W, Kortum K, et al. Treatment of acute viral hepatitis with (+)-cyanidanol-3. Lancet 1977;2: pp.1153–5
[2] Suzuki H, Yamamoto S, Hirayama C, et al. Cianidanol therapy for HBs-antigen-positive chronic hepatitis: a multicenter, double-blind study. Liver 1986;6: pp.35–44
[3] Bar-Meir S, Halpern Z, Gutman M, et al. Effect of (+)-cyanidanol-3 on chronic active hepatitis: A double blind controlled trial. Gut 1985;26: pp.975–9

Homeopathy

  COBAT / Taurox SB

Lab Tests/Rule-Outs

  Test/Monitor Liver Function
  Test for Hepatitis
 When hepatitis is only suspected, lab testing should be done to rule out hepatitis B and C and, if negative, Epstein barr Virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Mineral

  Selenium
 Optimal selenium status should be ensured for both prevention and treatment: 200mcg per day is needed to keep your liver healthy. When the micronutrient selenium was added to the diet of 20, 847 people in a Chinese town, the number who became infected with hepatitis B virus was 50% less than for villagers not receiving dietary selenium. Supplementation also markedly reduced the risk of liver cancer among HBV sufferers.

"Selenium also appears to be protective in individuals infected with hepatitis virus (B or C) against the progression of the condition to liver cancer." [Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. The Lancet. July 15, 2000; volume 356, pp.233-241]

  Salt Intake Reduction
 Most fast food restaurants should be avoided. Meats, especially red meats, are high in sodium content, and adherence to a vegetarian diet may often become necessary. Patients with chronic hepatitis C without ascites, are advised not to overindulge in salt intake, although their restrictions need not be as severe.

  Zinc
  Colloidal Silver

Not recommended:
  Iron
 Patients with chronic hepatitis C sometimes have difficulty excreting iron from the body. This can result in an
overload of iron in the liver, blood, and other organs. Excess iron can be very damaging to the liver. Studies suggest that high iron levels reduce the response rate of patients with hepatitis C to interferon. Thus, patients with chronic hepatitis C whose serum iron level is elevated, or who have cirrhosis, should avoid taking iron supplementation.

Nutrient

  Alpha Lipoic Acid
 Alpha lipoic acid is given in a dose of 300mg at least twice per day for hepatitis B or C. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), silymarin, and selenium have been used in combination with success in reducing symptoms and elevated liver enzyme levels (though the viral load was not substantially reduced).

  Lecithin / Choline / GPC
 Taking 3gm per day of phosphatidylcholine (found in lecithin) was found to be beneficial in one investigation of people with chronic hepatitis B. Signs of liver damage on biopsy were significantly reduced in this study. [Jenkins PJ, Portmann BP, Eddleston AL, Williams R. Use of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis: Results of prospective double-blind controlled trial. Liver 1982;2: pp.77–81]

  Beta-Carotene

Oxygen / Oxidative Therapies

  Ozone / Oxidative Therapy
 Some viruses are much more susceptible to ozone's action than others. It has been found that lipid-enveloped viruses such as HBV and HCV are among the most sensitive. While many doctors are reporting good success in treating Hepatitis with ozone, there have been limited studies performed.

In a small trial of 8 patients in which post treatment follow-up information was available, viral loads by Polymerase Chain Reaction, taken at the onset of ozone therapy, then repeated following completion of the therapy, were compared. An average viral load reduction of 99.96% was achieved. At the onset of treatment 7 of the 8 patients also had elevated liver enzyme levels - SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT). Following ozone therapy these measures fell into the normal range.

"Major autohemotherapy has been demonstrated countless times as being effective in hepatitis B and C. By doing this procedure, at least 15-21 days, we've been able to see hepatitis completely wiped out," claims pioneering physician Dr. John Pittman.

Surgery/Invasive

  Bloodletting / Phlebotomy
 In studies of hepatitis C patients, removal of 200-400ml of blood every 2-4 weeks to produce a ferritin level of <11ng/ml resulted in a reduction in liver enzyme elevation (ALT), a reduction in fibrosis, and a reduction in inflammation compared with control hepatitis C subjects. [Am J Gastroenterol January 2002, 97(l):1-4]

Vitamins

  Antioxidants
 An Israeli study published in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology observed that oxidative stress in the liver is associated with chronic Hepatitis C infection. Researchers concluded that treatment with multiple antioxidants for people with chronic HCV was well tolerated and has a therapeutic benefit for hepatic inflammation and liver cell death. Therefore, antioxidant therapy can reduce liver inflammation and cell death. [Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, September 2005.]

  Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
 Vitamin C (1,000 to 1,500mg per day), beta-carotene (100,000 IU per day), vitamin E (400 to 800 IU per day), and zinc (30 to 50mg per day) strengthen your immune system.

  Bioflavonoids
 An estimated 270 to 300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C and the conventional treatments -- interferon and ribavirin -- can have significant side effects. A new drug targeting cellular proteins rather than viral proteins would be a valuable addition to the treatment arsenal, said Samuel French, an assistant professor of pathology and senior author of the study.

French and his team set out to identify the cellular factors involved in hepatitis C replication and, using mass spectrometry, found that heat shock proteins (HSPs) 40 and 70 were important for viral infection. HSP 70 was previously known to be involved, but HSP 40 was linked for the first time to hepatitis C infection, French said. They further showed that the natural compound Quercetin, which inhibits the synthesis of these proteins, significantly inhibits viral infection in tissue culture.

"This is an important finding because we can block these proteins with the idea of reducing the level of the virus in people and, ideally, completely eliminate it," said French, who also is a researcher at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

The study appeared in the most recent issue of the journal Hepatology - January 2010.

Since Quercetin has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C infection, French said, a Phase I clinical trial will be launched at UCLA to determine if the compound is safe and effective.

Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid, and is used by some people as a nutritional supplement.

  Vitamin K1/K2
 Low vitamin K levels may be supplemented with 100 to 500 mcg per day.

  Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
 Vitamin B12 (with or without folic acid) has been reported in studies from the 1950s to help some people with hepatitis.[1] [2] Vitamin B12 injections are likely to be more beneficial than oral administration, though 1,000mcg taken orally each day can also be supplemented.

[1] Campbell RE, Pruitt FW. Vitamin B12 in the treatment of viral hepatitis. Am J Med Sci 1952;224: pp.252–62
[2] Campbell RE, Pruitt FW. The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid in the treatment of viral hepatitis. Am J Med Sci 1955;229: pp.8–15

  Vitamin B Complex
 B-complex (50 to 100mg per day), especially Folic Acid (800 to 1000mcg per day) and B12 (1000mcg per day) are needed for good liver function.

  Vitamin Folic Acid

Not recommended:
  Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
 Large doses of naicin may further increase the already elevated liver enzymes usually seen in hepatitis.
 
 


KEY
Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Proven definite or direct link
Weakly counter-indicative
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
May do some good
Likely to help
Highly recommended
May have adverse consequences







GLOSSARY

Acute:  An illness or symptom of sudden onset, which generally has a short duration.

Antibody:  A type of serum protein (globulin) synthesized by white blood cells of the lymphoid type in response to an antigenic (foreign substance) stimulus. Antibodies are complex substances formed to neutralize or destroy these antigens in the blood. Antibody activity normally fights infection but can be damaging in allergies and a group of diseases that are called autoimmune diseases.

Antiviral:  Any of a number of herbs, drugs or agents capable of destroying viruses or inhibiting their growth or multiplication until the body is capable of destroying the virus itself. Most antiviral agents are members of the antimetabolite family.

Bile:  A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver. Bile is stored in the gallbladder and is released when fat enters the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) in order to aid digestion.

Biopsy:  Excision of tissue from a living being for diagnosis.

Cancer:  Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.

Celiac Disease:  (Gluten sensitivity) A digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten. Common symptoms include diarrhea, increased appetite, bloating, weight loss, irritability and fatigue. Gluten is found in wheat (including spelt, triticale, and kamut), rye, barley and sometimes oats.

Chemotherapy:  A treatment of disease by any chemicals. Used most often to refer to the chemical treatments used to combat cancer cells.

Chronic:  Usually Chronic illness: Illness extending over a long period of time.

Cirrhosis:  A long-term disease in which the liver becomes covered with fiber-like tissue. This causes the liver tissue to break down and become filled with fat. All functions of the liver then decrease, including the production of glucose, processing drugs and alcohol, and vitamin absorption. Stomach and bowel function, and the making of hormones are also affected.

Colitis:  Inflammation of the colon.

Cysteine:  A nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. Cysteine is a sulfur-bearing amino acid with antioxidant properties. It is important for keratin synthesis, a protein found in skin, hair and nails and is a component of coenzyme A and glutathione.

Cytokines:  Cytokines are chemical messengers that control immune responses. They are secreted by white blood cells, T cells, epithelial cells and some other body cells. There are at least 17 different kinds of interleuken and 3 classes of interferon called alpha, beta and gamma and various subsets. Interleukens and interferons are called “cytokines” and there are two general groupings, Th1 and Th2. Th1 (T-cell Helper type 1) promote cell-mediated immunity (CMI) while Th2 (T-cell Helper type 2) induce humoral immunity (antibodies).

DHEA:  Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid produced by the adrenal glands and is the most abundant one found in humans. DHEA may be transformed into testosterone, estrogen or other steroids. It is found in the body as DHEA or in the sulfated form known as DHEA-S. One form is converted into the other as needed.

Dialysis:  The artificial process of cleaning wastes from the blood when kidneys fail.

Enzymes:  Specific protein catalysts produced by the cells that are crucial in chemical reactions and in building up or synthesizing most compounds in the body. Each enzyme performs a specific function without itself being consumed. For example, the digestive enzyme amylase acts on carbohydrates in foods to break them down.

Epidemic:  Describes a disease occurring in extensive outbreaks, or with an unusually high incidence at certain times and places.

Glutamine:  A non-essential amino acid, glutamine is considered to be a brain fuel. Glutamine has been used therapeutically for alcoholism, mild depression and to reduce the craving for sweets. Glutamine is very important in the functioning of the metabolism and muscle maintenance. Glutamine supplementation can help prevent muscle and other tissue breakdown by providing the body with nitrogen and fuel.

Glycine:  The simplest amino acid which is a constituent of normal protein and an inhibitory neurotransmitter, used as a dietary supplement. A natural antacid and sweetener, it is involved in the syntheses of DNA, phospholipids and collagen.

Hepatitis:  Inflammation of the liver usually resulting in jaundice (yellowing of the skin), loss of appetite, stomach discomfort, abnormal liver function, clay-colored stools, and dark urine. May be caused by a bacterial or viral infection, parasitic infestation, alcohol, drugs, toxins or transfusion of incompatible blood. Can be life-threatening. Severe hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and chronic liver dysfunction.

Hepatitis A:  This form of hepatitis is caused by an RNA virus that is transmitted person-to-person via the fecal-oral route. This may occur through water, food or close personal/sexual contact. Most children and about 50% of adults have few, if any, symptoms. Symptoms, when present, are initially flu-like, with malaise, fatigue, muscle pain and chest pain on the right side lasting 3 to 10 days. This is followed (for 1 to 3 weeks but possibly much longer) by jaundice (slight skin yellowing), anorexia, nausea, fatigue, pale stools, dark urine and liver enlargement, but usually no fever.

Hepatitis B:  A serious viral infection with the potential for long term consequences. It is caused by a DNA virus that has been found in virtually all body secretions and excretions. However, only blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluids have been shown to be infectious. Transmission occurs through sexual contact, blood-to-blood contact (blood products, needle sharing, etc.), and from infected mother to infant. Virtually all affected infants and children, and many adults, receive a lesser, even symptom-free, infection. Symptoms, when present, tend to be more severe and prolonged than those for Hepatitis A: initially flu-like, with malaise, fatigue, muscle pain and chest pain on the right side. This is followed by jaundice (slight skin yellowing), anorexia, nausea, fatigue, pale stools, dark urine and tender liver enlargement, but usually no fever.

Hepatitis C:  Caused by an RNA flavivirus. Transmission is predominantly through broken skin on contact with infected blood or blood products, especially through needle sharing. Sexual transmission is relatively rare. Symptoms are almost always present, and very similar to those for Hepatitis B: initially flu-like, with malaise, fatigue, muscle pain and chest pain on the right side. This is followed by jaundice (slight skin yellowing), anorexia, nausea, fatigue, pale stools, dark urine and tender liver enlargement, but usually no fever.

Herbs:  Herbs may be used as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, teas should be made with one teaspoon herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 to 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 to 20 minutes for roots. Tinctures may be used singly or in combination as noted. The high doses of single herbs suggested may be best taken as dried extracts (in capsules), although tinctures (60 drops four times per day) and teas (4 to 6 cups per day) may also be used.

HIV:  Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus, a retrovirus associated with onset of advanced immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Immune System:  A complex that protects the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies. The system includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response. The immune system also protects the body from invasion by making local barriers and inflammation.

Inositol:  Usually considered part of the vitamin B complex. It is thought that along with choline, inositol is necessary for the formation of lecithin within the body. Involved in calcium mobilization.

Interferon:  A protein formed by the cells of the immune system in the presence of a virus, etc. It prevents viral reproduction, and is capable of protecting noninfected cells from viral infection. Several kinds of interferon exist including alpha, beta, and gamma.

Intravenous Infusion:  (IV): A small needle placed in the vein to assist in fluid replacement or the giving of medication.

IP6:  Inositol Hexaphosphate.

Iron:  An essential mineral. Prevents anemia: as a constituent of hemoglobin, transports oxygen throughout the body. Virtually all of the oxygen used by cells in the life process are brought to the cells by the hemoglobin of red blood cells. Iron is a small but most vital, component of the hemoglobin in 20,000 billion red blood cells, of which 115 million are formed every minute. Heme iron (from meat) is absorbed 10 times more readily than the ferrous or ferric form.

NK:  Usually pertaining to Natural Killer Cells. Natural Killer Cells are an important first line of defense against newly arising malignant cells and cells infected with viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. They form a distinct group of lymphocytes with no immunological memory and are independent of the adaptive immune system. Natural Killer Cells constitute 5 to 16 percent of the total lymphocyte population. Their specific function is to kill infected and cancerous cells.

Protein:  Compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen present in the body and in foods that form complex combinations of amino acids. Protein is essential for life and is used for growth and repair. Foods that supply the body with protein include animal products, grains, legumes, and vegetables. Proteins from animal sources contain the essential amino acids. Proteins are changed to amino acids in the body.

Red Blood Cell:  Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of blood.

Selenium:  An essential element involved primarily in enzymes that are antioxidants. Three selenium- containing enzymes are antioxidant peroxidases and a fourth selenium-containing enzyme is involved in thyroid hormone production. The prostate contains a selenium-containing protein and semen contains relatively large amounts of selenium. Clinical studies show that selenium is important in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. In combination with Vitamin E, selenium aids the production of antibodies and helps maintain a healthy heart. It also aids in the function of the pancreas, provides elasticity to tissues and helps cells defend themselves against damage from oxidation.

Serum:  The cell-free fluid of the bloodstream. It appears in a test tube after the blood clots and is often used in expressions relating to the levels of certain compounds in the blood stream.

Trace Element:  Essential mineral that is essential to nutrition. Nutritionists prefer to call minerals either minerals or trace minerals depending on the amount needed by the body, while analytical chemists prefer to call minerals, trace elements.

Ulcerative Colitis:  (Colitis ulcerosa): Ulceration of the colon and rectum, usually long-term and characterized by rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, frequent urgent diarrhea/bowel movements each day, abdominal pain.

Virus:  Any of a vast group of minute structures composed of a protein coat and a core of DNA and/or RNA that reproduces in the cells of the infected host. Capable of infecting all animals and plants, causing devastating disease in immunocompromised individuals. Viruses are not affected by antibiotics, and are completely dependent upon the cells of the infected host for the ability to reproduce.

Vitamin C:  Also known as ascorbic acid, Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant vitamin essential to the body's health. When bound to other nutrients, for example calcium, it would be referred to as "calcium ascorbate". As an antioxidant, it inhibits the formation of nitrosamines (a suspected carcinogen). Vitamin C is important for maintenance of bones, teeth, collagen and blood vessels (capillaries), enhances iron absorption and red blood cell formation, helps in the utilization of carbohydrates and synthesis of fats and proteins, aids in fighting bacterial infections, and interacts with other nutrients. It is present in citrus fruits, tomatoes, berries, potatoes and fresh, green leafy vegetables.

White Blood Cell:  (WBC): A blood cell that does not contain hemoglobin: a blood corpuscle responsible for maintaining the body's immune surveillance system against invasion by foreign substances such as viruses or bacteria. White cells become specifically programmed against foreign invaders and work to inactivate and rid the body of a foreign substance. Also known as a leukocyte.

Zinc:  An essential trace mineral. The functions of zinc are enzymatic. There are over 70 metalloenzymes known to require zinc for their functions. The main biochemicals in which zinc has been found to be necessary include: enzymes and enzymatic function, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Zinc is a constituent of insulin and male reproductive fluid. Zinc is necessary for the proper metabolism of alcohol, to get rid of the lactic acid that builds up in working muscles and to transfer it to the lungs. Zinc is involved in the health of the immune system, assists vitamin A utilization and is involved in the formation of bone and teeth.