Cancer / Risk – General Measures

There are many tactics that can be employed to reduce the risk of getting cancer. When an increased risk of cancer is suggested, taking appropriate actions early on can lower this risk. This condition is included in the report of anyone who has a known cancer, has had cancer or for those who MAY BE AT GREATER RISK. It contains general treatment recommendations that may be useful in dealing with or preventing a wide range of cancers. Information on preventing metastases is found under specific cancers.

According to the very conservative American Institute for Cancer Research, there are several things you can do to substantially reduce your risk of getting cancer.

  1. Be as lean as possible within the normal range of body weight
  2. Be physically active as part of everyday life
  3. Limit consumption of “energy-dense foods,” foods that are high in calories, fat and sugar. Avoid sugary drinks
  4. Eat mostly foods of plant origin, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains and beans
  5. Limit intake of red meat and avoid ALL processed meat
  6. Limit alcoholic drinks to one per day for women, two per day for men
  7. Limit consumption of salt. Avoid moldy grains or legumes
  8. Aim to meet nutritional needs through diet alone, without dietary supplement

Extended fasting should be avoided in patients with a current known cancerous condition. This is especially true for those who have experienced significant weight loss. These patients tend to be malnourished already, and further nutrient restriction by fasting would make matters worse. While fasting may control or resolve non-cancerous tumors, it should not be expected that cancerous tumors will shrink during a fast. With advanced cancer, fasting may hasten death, but bring the benefit of lessening pain and making the patient more comfortable while dying.


Signs, symptoms & indicators of Cancer / Risk - General Measures

Symptoms - Food - General  

Weak appetite

Symptoms - General  

Major/minor fatigue for over 3 months or major fatigue for over 12 months

Symptoms - Liver / Gall Bladder  

Enlarged liver

The liver is a common site for metastatic cancer.

Symptoms - Metabolic  

Having a high/having a moderate/having a slight fever

Several different cancers are associated with fever.

Symptoms - Skeletal  

(Possible) bone pain

Symptoms - Skin - General  

Itchy skin

Persons with various malignant diseases that are known to produce symptoms of pruritus, including, but not limited to AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, Hodgkin’s disease and other lymphomas, leukemias, adenocarcinomas, and cancer of the stomach, pancreas, lung, colon, brain, breast, and prostate. Pruritus tends to disappear when cancer is cured or in remission. It may reappear when the disease recurs.

Conditions that suggest Cancer / Risk - General Measures




When hyperparathyroidism is present, the likelihood of elevated serum calcium being caused by other conditions is obviously reduced.

Lab Values  


Organ Health  



Night Sweats

Several malignancies can lead to night sweats.

Symptoms - Cancer  

Having a current cancer problem

Tumors, Malignant  

Risk factors for Cancer / Risk - General Measures


Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease

In one trial, 210 people with celiac disease were observed for 11 years. Those who followed a gluten-free diet had an incidence of cancer similar to that in the general population. However, those eating only a gluten-reduced diet or consuming a normal diet had an increased risk of developing cancer (mainly lymphomas and cancers of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus). [Gut 1989;30: pp.333-8]

Environment / Toxicity  

Family History  

Having family history of cancer

Counter Indicators
Family History  

Having cancer-free family history


Low Progesterone or Estrogen Dominance

See the link between Progesterone Low and Increased Risk of Breast Cancer.


Low Melatonin Level

People with higher levels of melatonin might be less likely to develop cancer, and people with lower levels seem to be more likely to develop at least some forms of cancer. At pharmacological levels (5-50mg), melatonin seems to be useful in fighting active cancers. Neither of these effects are huge – a lack of melatonin does not always cause cancer, and a large dose of melatonin does not always cure cancer. However, both effects seem large enough to be important.

The Immune System  


Lab Values - Chemistries  

(Highly) elevated CRP level

Patients with autoimmune diseases and cancer also often have elevated CRP levels.


(Very) low serum iron


Elevated ferritin levels



Less than 1% of cases of high calcium are due to cancer… far less than 0.01% of cases of high calcium in people sitting in front of their computer are due to cancer).

The types of cancer known to be associated with high blood calcium are:

Multiple Myeloma (this is discussed separately below).

Lung Cancer (squamous cell cancer of the lung, not all lung cancers)

Breast Cancer (advanced disease)

Kidney Cancer

Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

Cancer causes hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) in two ways. The first is easiest to understand. Occasionally certain cancers will spread from their site of origin to other parts of the body. Some cancers (all those listed above) have a propensity to spread to the bone. This is called metastasis. When the metastatic cancer spreads to the bones it grows there and slowly eats away at the center of the bone – this releases calcium into the blood. The second way that some cancers can increase your blood calcium is via hormones and proteins that the tumor can secrete. One of these hormones is called “parathyroid-related-peptide”. These hormones can circulate in the blood and cause the bones to release calcium just like parathyroid hormone does. Some of our patients will have had a PTHrp test done prior to them being sent to us for parathyroid surgery. This is your doctor’s way of checking to make sure that your high calcium is not caused by a cancer. We do not require this test to be done, nor should you ask your doctor for it. In our opinion, this test is WAY over used (but at least you understand what it’s for). Do NOT ask for this test. []


(History of) chewing tobacco use



Using a standard measure of neuroticism, Purdue University psychologist Daniel Mroczek tracked more than 1600 men over 12 years, recording not only how neurotic they were at the start but also whether they got more or less neurotic over time. He also looked at mortality risk for these same men over an 18-year span. As reported in the May issue of Psychological Science (2006?), those who increased over time in neuroticism was a ticket to an early grave. In other words, these men-all middle age or older to begin with-did not grow old gracefully. They likely got more and more stressed, worried or fretful, and this downward spiral increased their risk for dying, mostly from cancer and heart disease.

The good news is that men with a fretful temperament, if they managed for whatever reason to calm down a bit over time, had survival rates similar to those of emotionally stable men.


Problem Caused By Being Overweight

Apart from excess stimulation by estrogen in breast and ovarian cancer, obese people are more prone to cancer, although it is still uncertain why.


Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/ Supplements

Epidemiological evidence consistently relates low antioxidant intake or low blood levels of antioxidants with increased
cancer risk. [Nutr Cancer 1992;18(1): pp.1-29]


Antioxidant Need/Oxidative Stress w/o Supplements

Epidemiological evidence consistently relates low antioxidant intake or low blood levels of antioxidants with increased
cancer risk. [Nutr Cancer 1992;18(1): pp.1-29]


Vitamin D Requirement

It has been known for many decades that there is an inverse correlation between sun exposure and cancer deaths. It has also been observed that there is a direct association between skin cancers and sun exposure and an inverse association between skin cancers and internal cancers. Some even thought that development of skin cancer brought immunity against various internal cancers. It is now understood to be a function not of immunity, but of vitamin D concentrations. The important point here is that cancer prevention can be provided not by additional sun exposure (increasing the risk of melanoma) but by the use of supplemental vitamin D.

Calcitriol, the activated form of vitamin D, has been shown to induce cell differentiation and to control cell proliferation. People with a low vitamin D level are less able to make calcitriol in an amount sufficient to exert the controls over cell proliferation that are needed to reduce cancer.


Vitamin A Requirement

Analogues of vitamin A are known as retinoids. Numerous studies have shown that retinoid deficiency enhances the risk of cancer in humans. Retinoids are being used in humans to treat cancers (particularly skin, lung, bladder, cervical or breast) which involve epithelial tissues. Vitamin A can be used to both treat and prevent cancers and there have been a number of studies showing beta carotene‘s protective effects against cancer.



















Increased Risk of Brain Cancer

Please see the subject Cancer / Risk Reduction – General Measures.








Supplements and Medications  

Selenium supplementation

Symptoms - Cancer  

History of cervical cancer


History of endometrial cancer


Having a history of cancer


History of testicular cancer

“Men with testicular cancer may be at increased risk of secondary leukemia, sarcoma, and cancers of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and other urogenital sites,” concluded an international team of researchers led by Dr. Lois Travis of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda, Maryland.

The researchers found that the “risks for second cancers were significantly elevated in all (national) registries,” compared with men who had no history of prior testicular tumors. The study found that a survivor’s risk for a subsequent cancer seems to increase with passing years. For example, 25 years after diagnosis of testicular cancer, survivors faced a 15.7% risk of second cancer – compared with a 9.3% risk for men who had never been stricken with the disease. By 30 years after diagnosis, “one in five men (22.6%) with testicular tumors would be expected to develop a second cancer,” the researchers say, “…compared with about one in eight men (13.1%) in the general population.”

No one is sure exactly why these men face heightened risks for second cancers. But the study authors point out that “concern has been raised about the possible carcinogenic (consequences) of cisplatin, which is retained in numerous tissues long after completion of treatment.” They believe their findings should prompt clinicians to follow patients with testicular cancer for life, even those cured decades ago. [Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1997;89(19): pp.1394-1395, 1429-1439]

Symptoms - Environment  

(High) solvent exposure


(Heavy) treated lumber exposure

Symptoms - Food - Beverages  

Low-calorie soft drink consumption

The additive, also known as NutraSweet, is 200 times sweeter than sugar and is used throughout the world in 6,000 diet foods and pharmaceutical products including Diet Coke, Pepsi Max, strawberry yogurt, Wrigley’s Extra Spearmint chewing gum, vitamins and sugar-free cough drops.

As few as one diet soda daily may increase the risk for leukemia in men and women, and for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men, according to new results from the longest-ever running study on aspartame as a carcinogen in humans. Importantly, this is the most comprehensive, long-term study ever completed on this topic, so it holds more weight than other past studies which appeared to show no risk. And disturbingly, it may also open the door for further similar findings on other cancers in future studies.

The combined results of this new study showed that just one 12-fl oz. can (355 ml) of diet soda daily leads to:

– 42 percent higher leukemia risk in men and women (pooled analysis)

– 102 percent higher multiple myeloma risk (in men only)

– 31 percent higher non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk (in men only)

[Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 24]


(High) coffee consumption

Studies linking coffee consumption with cancer are conflicting and inconclusive at this point, but there is a suggestion of a higher incidence of cancers of the pancreas, ovaries, bladder, and kidneys in coffee drinkers.

Symptoms - Metabolic  

Recent unexplained weight loss

Counter Indicators
Symptoms - Metabolic  

No recent unexplained weight loss

Tumors, Malignant  
























Cancer, Mouth, Throat

Please see the subject Cancer / Risk Reduction – General Measures


Cancer / Risk - General Measures suggests the following may be present


The Immune System  

Recommendations for Cancer / Risk - General Measures

Amino Acid / Protein  



Propolis / Bee Products

Bee propolis, a sticky resin collected by bees from trees, is a COX-2 inhibitor, according to Dr. Gaynor. Dr. Rao has found bee propolis very effective for cancer prevention in animals, noting, “You can use it in lower doses than curcumin because it is highly absorbable.” It is typically sold as 500mg capsules.



When Dr. Rowen discovered a report by Drs. Henry Lai and Narenda Singh, bioengineering professors at the University of Washington, that indicated that the herb “might provide a safe, non-toxic, and inexpensive alternative for cancer patients”, he started using it with cancer patients. “Chinese Herb Cures Cancer” by Dr. Robert Jay R Rowen, Second Opinion, May 2002. Dr. Lai and his colleague, Dr. Singh, had found its use dramatically killed breast-cancer cells and leukemia cells while leaving normal breast cells and white blood cells unscathed.

According to Lai, it is believed to work because when artemisinin or any of its derivatives comes into contact with iron, a chemical reaction ensues, spawning charged atoms that chemists call free radicals. Cells need iron to replicate DNA when they divide, and since cancer is characterized by out-of-control cell division, cancer cells have much higher iron concentrations than do normal cells. What Lai did was to pump up cancer cells with even more iron and then introduce artemisinin to selectively kill them. Lai theorizes that more aggressive cancers such as pancreatic and acute leukemia, which are characterized by more rapid cell division and thus higher iron concentrations, may respond even better.

Dr. Rowen also reported on an article that appeared about a year ago in a major cancer journal demonstrating significant artemisinin anticancer activity in a wide variety of laboratory cultured cancer cells. Cancers resistant to common chemotherapy drugs showed no resistance to artemisinin. International Journal of Oncology 18; pp.767-773, 2001

One of the patient’s Dr. Rowen worked with was a 47 year old female with stage 4 breast cancer with metastases to the spine.. She used IPT, high-dose nutritional therapy, dietary changes, dendritic cell vaccine, multi-step oxygen therapy, and more. All of her symptoms regressed, but the CT showed no change. When artemisinin derivatives were added, greater results were obtained.

A Dr. Hoang of Hanoi, Vietnam, reports that 50 to 60% of 400 cancer patients have achieved long-term remission utilizing artemisinin together with a comprehensive integrative cancer strategy. Among these patients is a 47 year old female who, presented with terminal liver cancer from hepatitis B and abdominal ascites, was just days or weeks from death. Today; 2 1/2 years later, she is alive and well with no signs of any disease. Dr. Singh is currently following many cancer patients. While not reporting remissions or apparent cures, he says all patients are responding and have at least stabilized. He has found no type of cancer unresponsive to artemisinin derivatives in his studies. Dr. Hoang recommends treatment for two years. Cancer could be like the malaria parasite. If just one cell remains, it can find its way back. Thus, as in malaria, although the parasite is cleared in a few days, prolonged treatment best prevents relapse.

This treatment is said to be non-toxic, so you can continue taking it indefinitely with no expected side effects, though it does depend on the form of artemesia one uses. There are three common artemesia derivatives – Artesunate is water soluble and may be the most active and the least toxic, but it has the shortest life within the body. Artemether is oil or lipid soluble and has the longest half-life. It also has the most toxicity (but this is related to rather high dosages, which are not necessary. Its big advantage is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier to reach cancers in the nervous system. Artemisinin is the active parent compound of the plant. It has an intermediate half-life, is very safe, and also can cross the blood-brain barrier. The first two are slightly altered semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin, the concentrated and purified active agent.

Dr. Singh reports that a combination of the forms may be the very best treatment due to these different properties (based on a lab experiment). Thus, he feels the best preparation will contain artemisinin and artemether to provide a dose of 0.5-2 mg/Kg of each form once daily before bed (away from any residual iron left in the stomach from the evening meal). Dr. Hoang used 500mg twice daily of oral artemisinin with good success. The product is best taken on an empty stomach with some natural fat to enhance absorption. Any iron present from residual food may neutralize the peroxides. Milk is one of the few foods with minimal iron. Whole milk, cottage cheese, or yogurt have ample fat to enhance absorption.

Additionally, Dr. Rowen stated that he adds cod liver oil (for its omega-3 and vitamin D) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to this therapy. He says that, with the exception of patients very near death, taking artemisinin or derivatives have stabilized, improved, or remitted every cancer patient he has followed. Medical literature also seems to suggest that oxygenating the system might make the products effective. Administration of certain chemotherapy agents (IPT), which kill cells through free radical mechanisms, is another option.

Artemesia herb products are not the same as the concentrated forms of the derivatives described above. The highest concentration of artemisinin (the active agent) in the raw herb in best of conditions does not even get beyond one-half percent. Dr. Singh tested some products, finding perhaps only 10 to 20% of anti-cancer activity against cultured cancer cells compared to pure artemisinin. Allergy Research Group distributes a high grade artemisinin confirmed by independent lab analysis, so this is the one Dr. Rowen recommended.

Topical artemisinin (one capsule ARG artemisinin in 50% DMSO, BID) has been tried with some success also, so this method, along with internal use, is recommended when the tumor is accessible.

The fact that artemisinin’s direct antineoplastic effect- closely resemble that of high-dose intravenous vitamin C is intriguing. The potential benefit of artemisinin in cancer treatment should be further explored because it is simple, safe, well-understood, and capitalizes on the multifold weakness in cancer cells to defend themselves against oxygen radicals. Enhancing the oxidant activity with other oxidation agents (such as carnivora, ultraviolet blood irradiation, H202, or higher oxygen tension itself) may add significant synergism. Adding artemisinin to low dose chemo-therapeutic regimens inducing cytotoxicity via free radical mechanisms (such as doxorubicin), may safely add to the effectiveness of such treatment. Dr. Singh has shared that he has been following a series of cancer patients with nearly universal improvement on artemisinin or its derivatives.

Please note: Dr. Rowen warns that this is not a singular therapy and should be used in conjunction with a comprehensive cancer management strategy, together with the help of an integrative medicine physician or an open-minded oncologist.


Medicinal Mushrooms

Antitumor and anticancer properties have been studied in mushrooms. Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and reishi (Ganoderma ludidum) have been found to have general anticancer and immune-stimulating activity. [Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1982;9(8): pp.1474-81] Maitake (Grifolia frondosa) also contains immune-stimulating polysaccharides. In a study by Hiroaki Namba, Ph.D., of Japan, mice were fed either a control diet, a diet that included 20% maitake powder or a control diet plus injections of maitake D-fraction extract at a rate of 1mg/kg of body weight. Results showed that maitake inhibited metastasis by 81% in the maitake-fed group and by 91% in the D-fraction injection group.

There are an increasing number of combination mushroom products on the market to help prevent and provide a supportive role in the treatment of cancer.

However, a six month trial of a Shitake extract produced no noticeable benefit in prostate cancer sufferers. [Urology 2002;60(4): pp.640-4]

Thirty-four patients, with no significant difference in their baseline demographic, clinical or tumor characteristics, or previous treatment regimes (P>0.05), were recruited into each of the PSP and control arms. After 28-day treatment, there was a significant improvement in blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts, serum IgG and IgM, and percent of body fat among the PSP, but not the control, patients (P<0.05). Although the evaluable PSP patients did not improve in NSCLC-related symptoms, there were significantly less PSP patients withdrawn due to disease progression, than their control counterparts (5.9 and 23.5%, respectively; P=0.04; OR 4.00). There was no reported adverse reaction attributable to the trial medications.Conclusion : PSP treatment appears to be associated with slower deterioration in patients with advanced NSCLC. [Respiratory Medicine Volume 97, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages 618-624 ]

In testing with a smaller molecule from Coriolus versicolor (SPVC), there is promise of anticancer effects which are better than that found with the PSP extract from Coriolus versicolor. It does not appear that this product is currently available for consumer use.

A small polypeptide was isolated from the crude extraction of polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor (Cov-1) by HPLC and CIEF. It has a smaller molecular weight (10K) compared with that of PSP (100K) and was named small peptide of Coriolus versicolor, SPCV. It was found that SPCV possesses potent cytotoxic effect on human tumor cell lines of HL-60, LS174-T, SMMU-7721, and SCG-7901. The IC50 of SPCV on HL-60 was 30 µg/ml. The inhibition rates of leukemia cells and SCG-7901 were significantly higher in SPCV treated group than that in PSP and PSK groups. SPCV also has immunopotentiating effect as it increased WBC and IgG levels. Pretreatment of SPCV for two weeks decreased the incidence of tumor mass in nude mice inoculated with tumor cells. [ American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM) Volume: 20, Issues: 3-4 (1992) pp. 221-232]


Coffee Enema

Dr. Max Gerson pioneered the use of the coffee enema starting in the 1930s as part of a general detoxification regimen for cancer. Dr. Gerson noted some remarkable effects of this procedure including patients no longer needing pain-killers once on the enemas. The frequency of coffee enemas needed to achieve this effect may be many during a single day, and should not be undertaken without supervision.

Dr. Lee Wattenberg, MD was able to show that substances found in coffee – kahweol and cafestol palmitate – promote the activity of a key enzyme system, glutathione S-transferase. This enzyme is responsible for neutralizing free radicals, harmful chemicals now commonly implicated in the initiation of cancer and needed for detoxification. Consuming coffee orally does not produce the benefits experienced when it is taken as an enema.

When cells are challenged by poisons, oxygen deprivation, malnutrition or a physical trauma they lose potassium, take on sodium and chloride, and swell up with excess water. This “tissue damage syndrome” makes it easier for cancerous cells to survive. Cells normally have a preference for potassium over sodium but when a cell is damaged it begins to prefer sodium.

This craving results in a damaged ability of cells to repair themselves and to utilize energy. Furthermore, damaged cells produce toxins. Around tumors are zones of “wounded” but still non-malignant tissue, swollen with salt and water. Dr. Gerson believed that cancer could not exist in normal metabolism. He directed his efforts toward creating normal metabolism in the tissue surrounding a tumor.


Turmeric Extract, Curcumin

Curcumin, the ingredient that gives turmeric its yellow color and one of the best studied of the natural COX-2 inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit the development of cancer in animals. Dr. Chintalapally V. Rao, a scientist with the American Health Foundation in Valhalla, New York, has conducted extensive animal studies with curcumin and notes that while the new drugs “undermine the activity of the COX-2 enzyme, curcumin completely blocks formation of the enzyme itself.”

The intriguing evidence of curcumin’s anticancer effects in animal studies has prompted a clinical trial of the compound. Dr. Steven Schiff at Rockefeller University in New York is assessing whether curcumin supplements (250 mg twice a day) can inhibit the development of colon cancer in humans. Much better absorption is achieved when taken with bioperine.

One of the main causes of cancer is chemical-induced changes in DNA resulting in uncontrolled cell reproduction. One of the things that sets curcumin apart from most other anti-cancer supplements is that it can actually block chemicals from getting inside cells. Importantly, curcumin can interfere with pesticides that mimic estrogen, including DDT and dioxin. Curcumin competes for the same chemical doorway as estrogen and estrogen-mimicking chemicals, and as such has the power to block access to the cell and protect the cell from becoming cancerous.

So far, in animal studies, curcumin has been found to block the cancer-causing effect of other chemicals such as paraquat, nitrosamines and carbon tetrachloride.

Curcumin has a number of cytokine-inhibiting properties such as the inhibition of angiogenic signals from tissue-like bone marrow, as well as the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as bFGF and HGF. It increases the expression of functional nuclear p53 protein in human basal cell carcinomas, hepatomas, and leukemia cell lines. This increases apoptosis. It also down-regulates the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in bone marrow stromal cells. Higher doses of curcumin would appear to be useful for cancer patients to take.

In India (where the spice is widely used) the prevalence of the top four U.S. cancers – colon, breast, prostate and lung – is 10 times lower. [Cancer July 11, 2005]



Scientists Find Cannabis Compound Stops Metastasis In Aggressive Cancers – 2012

By Robin Wilkey

A pair of scientists at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco has found that a compound derived from marijuana could stop metastasis in many kinds of aggressive cancer, potentially altering the fatality of the disease forever.

“It took us about 20 years of research to figure this out, but we are very excited,” said Pierre Desprez, one of the scientists behind the discovery, to The Huffington Post. “We want to get started with trials as soon as possible.”

The Daily Beast first reported on the finding, which has already undergone both laboratory and animal testing, and is awaiting permission for clinical trials in humans.

Desprez, a molecular biologist, spent decades studying ID-1, the gene that causes cancer to spread. Meanwhile, fellow researcher Sean McAllister was studying the effects of Cannabidiol, or CBD, a non-toxic, non-psychoactive chemical compound found in the cannabis plant. Finally, the pair collaborated, combining CBD and cells containing high levels of ID-1 in a petri dish.

“What we found was that his Cannabidiol could essentially ‘turn off’ the ID-1,” Desprez told HuffPost. The cells stopped spreading and returned to normal.

“We likely would not have found this on our own,” he added. “That’s why collaboration is so essential to scientific discovery.”

Desprez and McAllister first published a paper about the finding in 2007. Since then, their team has found that CBD works both in the lab and in animals. And now, they’ve found even more good news.

“We started by researching breast cancer,” said Desprez. “But now we’ve found that Cannabidiol works with many kinds of aggressive cancers–brain, prostate–any kind in which these high levels of ID-1 are present.” Desprez hopes that clinical trials will begin immediately.

“We’ve found no toxicity in the animals we’ve tested, and Cannabidiol is already used in humans for a variety of other ailments,” he said. Indeed, the compound is used to relieve anxiety and nausea, and, since it is non-psychoactive, does not cause the “high” associated with THC.


Ginseng, Korean - Chinese / Asian (Panax ginseng)

Ginseng is known to reduce the risk of many types of cancers.



Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)

Bindweed inhibits new blood vessel development and thus restricts cancer growth. A typical dose is four to six 250mg capsules per day. Support for its use in cancer is currently limited to laboratory studies and personal experiences.



Herbal Combinations

The essential ingredients of “C” Formula and “Y” Formula – CESSIAC(R) and YUCCALIVE(R) – include sheep sorrel, burdock root, schidigera yucca and fennel. The results of this group of observations, conducted in China, showed that the combined use of “C” Formula and “Y” Formula had confirmed therapeutic effect on the treatment and prevention of tumors. They could improve the immunologic function of the body and the overall health of the patient. The herbs had no obvious toxic side-effects. Information and study details can be found at the home page for Focus On Health.

Of the 39 cases in this study, 23 were tumor patients and 16 were secondary immunologic deficiency patients. Among the tumor patients, three died of advanced metastatic carcinoma since they were already at a critical stage when starting the treatment. There was one case of complete remission, 6 cases of partial remission and 13 cases of moderate remission and stabilized development. The total remission rate was 30.4%. The rate of moderate remission and stabilized development was 56.5% and the death rate 13%. Of the 16 secondary immunologic deficiency cases, 5 were notably benefited, 8 were moderately benefited, and three did not benefit.

Notably, there were no toxic side-reactions as seen with other anticancer drugs, such as arrest of bone marrow, digestive tract reactions and baldness. On the contrary, all patients in the study group had improvements in spirit, appetite, digestive function, physical strength and immunologic function of the body. The herbs were also shown to be effective on hepatitis B, allergic rhinitis, pulmonary tuberculosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore, the herbal combination was considered to be better than other antitumor drugs.


Astragalus Root (Astragalus membrinaceus)

In studies performed at the Nation Cancer Institute and 5 other leading American Cancer Institutes over the past 10 years, it has been positively shown that astragalus strengthens a cancer patient’s immune system. Researchers believed on the basis of cell studies that astragalus augments those white blood cells that fight disease and removes some ot those that make the body more vunerable to it. There is clinical evidence that cancer patients given astragalus during chemotherapy and radiation, both of which reduce the body’s natural immunity while attacking the cancer, recover significantly faster and live longer.

Astragalus does not directly attack cancer cells, but strengthens the body’s immune system. In the above mentioned studies, both in the laboratory and with 572 patients, it also has been found that Astragalus promotes adrenal cortical function, which also is critically diminished in cancer patients.


Green / Oolong / BlackTea (Camellia sinensis)

Green tea can delay or prevent the occurrence of some cancers, but typically must be consumed in large quantities (up to 10 cups or more) daily to achieve this effect. Extracts taken in pill form may be more convenient. There are also teas available with added SGS, which does have an independent cancer preventive action.






Grape Seed Extract / Resveratrol

A number of studies have already revealed that eating fruit and vegetables helps to prevent cancer, and that this is likely due to the presence of proanthocyanidins. The authours, Shi and colleagues have already investigated this family of antioxidant compounds in apple peel and found it triggered cell death in cancer cells but not non-cancer cells.

Studies on grape seed extract have also suggested that it reduces breast tumors in rats and skin tumors in mice, and is active in a number of laboratory human cancer cell lines (such as skin, breast, colon, lung, stomach and prostate cancer cells), but until now nobody has investigated its effect on blood cancers.

Shi and colleagues used a commercially available grape seed extract and exposed leukemia cells to various concentrations of the extract for 12 and 24 hours, and also looked at what happened when leukemia cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of the extract over various time intervals.

The results showed that exposure to grape seed extract resulted in dose and time-dependent increase in cancer cell apoptosis. They also discovered that the extract did not affect normal cells but they weren’t able to determine why.

“This is a natural compound that appears to have relatively important properties,” said Shi.

He and colleagues then examined the underlying mechanisms by which the grape seed extract caused the leukemia cells to commit suicide. They found that the extract had a strong effect on the activation of JNK, which led to the up-regulation of Cip/p21 (a CDK inhibitor which controls the cell cycle).

They double checked their finding by showing that the grape seed extract didn’t work when used with an agent that blocked JNK: this was a pharmacologic approach. And using a genetic approach, they showed that silencing the JNK gene also disabled the grape seed extract’s ability to trigger apoptosis.

Shi told the press that “These results could have implications for the incorporation of agents such as grape seed extract into prevention or treatment of hematological malignancies and possibly other cancers.”

“What everyone seeks is an agent that has an effect on cancer cells but leaves normal cells alone, and this shows that grape seed extract fits into this category,” he added.

Shi said these finding were not enough to warrant advising people to start eating lots of grapes, grape seeds, or grape skin in the hope they will avoid getting cancer. It’s too early to say for sure that grape seed extract has this effect, even though the results are promising, he said. [1 January 2009, Clinical Cancer Research]


Rosemary (Rosemariana officinalis)

Rosemary is a COX-2 inhibitor, and increases the activity of detoxification enzymes. An extract of rosemary, termed carnosol, has inhibited the development of both breast and skin tumors in animals. Rosemary can be used as a seasoning or a tea: Use 1tsp dried leaves per cup of hot water; steep for 15 minutes.




Increased Fruit/Vegetable Consumption

Consumption of fruits is widely accepted as lowering the risk of most common cancers except prostate cancer. Many doctors recommend that people wishing to reduce their risk of cancer eat several pieces of fruit and several portions of vegetables every day. Optimal intakes remain unknown.

Traditionally, apple peels have been considered healthy because of their fiber content, as the peel contains about 75 percent of the dietary fiber in an apple. But a recent study has shown that the peel also contains most of the beneficial phytochemicals responsible for apples’ anticarcinogenic effects.

Scientists processed more than 200 pounds of Red Delicious apples, and extracted phytochemicals from about 24 pounds of peel. They screened the compounds for anti-cancer effects in laboratory cultures of human liver, breast, and colon cancer cells, and identified a group of compounds with potent anti-cancer properties.

Specifically, 13 triterpenoids from the peels of Red Delicious apples were identified and confirmed to be highly effective against cancer. Exactly how and why these biochemicals seek and destroy cancer cells is still unknown.

Apple consumption has previously been linked to a reduced risk of lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. [Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 11, May 30, 2007: pp. 4366-4370]


Increased Fish Consumption

Study subjects who ate two or more servings of fish weekly had a much lower risk for esophageal, stomach, colon, rectum, and pancreatic cancers than those who avoided fish. In fact, the rates of these types of cancer were 30 to 50 percent lower among fish eaters. High fish consumption was also associated with lower risks for cancers of the larynx (30 percent lower risk), endometrial cancer (20 percent lower risk), and ovarian cancer (30 percent lower risk).

The short term (2 week) use of fish oil, late in the course of cancer, provided no noticeable benefits. 1.8gm per day EPA and 1.2gm per day DHA had no effect on appetite, tiredness, nausea, well-being, caloric intake, or nutritional status. [ J Clin Oncol 2003;21(1): pp.129-34]


Cabbage Family Vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables will reduce the risk of cancer in smokers, and most likely non-smokers as well.


Vegetarian/Vegan Diet

“35 percent of cancer deaths may be related to diet.” [The National Cancer Institute booklet “Diet, Nutrition, & Cancer Prevention: A Guide to Food Choices”]

Cancer rates for vegetarians are 25 to 50% below population averages, even after controlling for smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status.[1,2] Vegans show even better results. One study found that people who include generous amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diets have lower rates of cancers of the lung, breast, colon, bladder, stomach, mouth, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, and cervix compared to people who avoid such foods.[3]

Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidant substances, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, which protect cells against oxidative damage, which is related to cancer risk and other health problems.[4] The multitude of phytochemicals found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, and nuts are thought to protect against heart disease and cancer.[5]




Alcohol Consumption

Another potent COX-2 inhibitor known as resveratrol is produced in the skin of red grapes, where it protects against oxidation and fungal infections. Resveratrol is found in grape juice and red wine; red Bordeaux and French Cabernets contain a particularly high concentration of the compound. Resveratrol appears to help protect against cancer in at least three ways: It is anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and may prevent cancer cells from progressing to their next stage. Supplements of resveratrol have been reported to contain little or none, based upon testing by Dr. David Sinclair.


Cytoluminescent Therapy (CLT)

Information regarding CLT is being placed in this section because of the wide variety of cancers for which it has been used.


Conventional Drugs / Information

February 2008. Researchers from the University of Oklahoma have tested a chemical compound known as SHetA2, or Flex-Hets—a derivative of Vitamin A—that successfully prevents cancer from forming and spreading. The compound was reportedly effective against 12 types of cancer, including kidney and ovarian cancer, even when caught in later stages.

As reported in The Oklahoman, while clinical trials are still needed, the researchers hope to develop a pill that could be taken daily, like a multivitamin, to prevent cancer.

“These are exciting times when we’re working on a substance that prevents cancer from occurring or spreading,” said Dr. Robert Mannel, director of the University of Oklahoma Cancer Institute.

“This could dramatically and significantly improve our ability to successfully prevent and treat cancer,” said Dr. Mark Clanton.

COX-2 inhibitor drugs, so-called because they block an enzyme called cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), are used to treat the pain and inflammation. There is now compelling evidence that they may also protect against cancer. Mitch Gaynor, M.D., director of medical oncology at the Strang Cancer Prevention Center in New York, notes that suppressing COX-2 may be beneficial because, “the COX-2 enzyme helps make carcinogens much more active once they get into your body. The enzyme also allows cancerous cells to grow new blood vessels.”

There may be drug-free alternatives to the synthetic COX-2 inhibitors as close as your spice shelf. Although they do not have as powerful an action, it appears that certain foods are natural inhibitors of the COX-2 enzyme. By incorporating these foods in your diet, you can obtain some of the potential cancer-preventing benefits of the COX-2 inhibitors naturally.

Dipyridamole tends to prevent the attachment of cancer cells flowing in the blood circulation to the endothelium and thus tends to prevent the formation of metastases. Dr. Betty Rhodes (retired) has been disappointed that there has been no followup on this most hopeful indication that she has demonstrated of dipyridamole in treating melanoma. She feels that dipyridamole may be just as effective in treating many other forms of solid malignant tumors.

In a trial referencing the poor response to aspirin ine heart disease and stroke, dipyridamole was added to the treatment protocol and the results were outstanding. Over a two-year period, stroke deaths were decreased by 50%, deaths from myocardial infarction decreased by 38% and deaths from cancer by 25%. [ European Stroke Prevention Study, Lancet, December 12, 1987; pp. 1,371-4]

(Philadelphia)—Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have found that a commonly prescribed diabetes drug kills tumor cells that lack a key regulatory gene called p53. Results from current studies in mice may result in new therapies for a subset of human cancers that tend to be aggressive and resistant to existing treatments. Additionally, the findings open up a new avenue for targeting cancers whose hallmark is the absence of this regulatory gene.

The Penn team reported their findings last month (July 2007) in Cancer Research.

“This is the first time you can show that tumor growth is impaired by a diabetes drug,” says senior author Craig B. Thompson, MD, Director of the Abramson Cancer Center and Chairman and Professor of Cancer Biology and Medicine. “It is specific for tumors that lack p53, which is the most common mutation in human cancer.”

More than half of all human cancers have lost the p53 gene. Yet even in an era of molecularly targeted therapies scientists have had trouble figuring out how to compensate for the absence of a gene. Unlike a genetic mutation that changes the function or activity of a gene, which can be inhibited by a well-tailored drug, loss of a gene leaves nothing for the drug to target.

Thompson and his team, however, have been accumulating evidence over the last several years that p53, best known as a regulator of cell division, controls several metabolic pathways in cells. For potential cancer therapies, that means a drug that affects pathways controlled by p53 could help control p53-deficient tumors.

Significantly, the regulation of metabolic pathways by p53 is also influenced by Metformin, the most widely used diabetes drug. Metformin activates the metabolic enzyme AMPK (AMP activated protein kinase), which exerts changes on cellular metabolism by affecting p53 function. Two observational studies already show that diabetic patients who take Metformin have a lower rate of cancer diagnosis and mortality than other diabetics.

Thompson’s group hypothesized that Metformin may specifically slow the growth of cancers that lack p53. To find out, they injected human colon cancer cells that have normal p53 function into one side of mice and colon cancer cells that lack p53 into the other side. Four days later they started treating the animals with a daily injection of either a saline control solution or with Metformin, using a dose comparable to diabetic treatment in humans.

Four weeks later, the p53-deficient tumors in mice treated with Metformin were half the size of the p53 deficient tumors in control mice. There was no difference in the size of the p53 normal tumors between the animals treated with Metformin or saline. They concluded that Metformin slowed the growth of the colon cancer cells that lack a normal p53 function.



Vaccines as a treatment for existing cancers have been successful in many individuals. The number of believers in cancer vaccines is growing, and the money is following. Hundreds of clinical trials are recruiting patients as of 2011.


Hydrazine Sulfate

Cachexia (wasting) in cancer patients is produced by the cancer cells’ partial metabolism of glucose, which leaves lactic acid as a by-product. The liver expends enormous amounts of the body’s energy converting lactic acid back to glucose. As the cancer grows (and puts out more and more lactic acid) this process is intensified, and the body weakens and wastes away. Hydrazine sulfate works by blocking a liver enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lactic acid into glucose. This both stops the constant energy drain on the body and robs the tumor of a significant source of energy.


Chemical Avoidance

Some chemicals cause cancer in experimental animals. Those chemicals identified as being associated with cancers in humans have all been shown to produce cancer in laboratory animals. In every instance, as least one site of cancer was common to both animals and humans. Chemicals shown to be carcinogenic in at least 2 species of animals should be considered as being likely to present cancer risks to humans.

The list of chemicals known to contribute to the development of cancer in animals and humans is long. As time passes, the list is getting longer, not shorter. Anyone at risk for developing cancer, or with a history of cancer, should strongly consider reducing their repeated exposure to as many synthetic chemicals as reasonably possible.


Beta 1,3 Glucan

Macrophages are an important component of the human immune system. Once they are activated by the Beta 1,3 glucan molecule they become awesome disease destroyers. Besides most pathogens, macrophages can recognize and kill a variety of tumor cells. In fact, any cancer is fair game for an activated macrophage. [M. L. Patchen, Ph.D. Department of Experimental Hematology and Radiation Sciences, Armed Forces Radiobiology Institute]

The initial 9 patients studied had malignant melanoma, adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung, or carcinoma of the breast. Control and experimental lesions were injected: subsequently biopsies were performed at varying intervals for histologic evaluation. Always when glucan was administered intralesionally, the size of the lesion was strikingly reduced in as short a period as 5 days. This reduction was associated with necrosis of the tumor and a monocytic infiltration. In small lesions, resolution was complete, whereas in large lesions, resolution was partial. The amount of glucan injected and the quantity of residual tumor appeared to be related. [NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE Medline Unique Identifier:75135679]


Sunlight / Light Exposure

Please see the link between Cancer / Risk Reduction and Vitamin D.




Melatonin has been shown to inhibit several types of cancer, especially hormone-related cancers like breast cancer and prostate cancer. This may be due to its ability to reduce the number of cellular estrogen receptors, which reduces the production of cell-multiplication factors. The immune-modulating properties of melatonin seem to convey additional anti-cancer properties. It has been shown to support the use of interleukin-2 in anti-cancer therapy, especially under conditions of controlled lighting. Many animal studies have demonstrated an increase in tumor growth rates in animals whose pineal glands have been removed.

Various researchers report successes against solid tumors, colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, brain metastases, glioblastoma, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, prostate cancer, metastatic renal cancer and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Furthermore, these effects seem to be substantial.

To select a typical example, people with solid tumors were given either just IL-2 (a regulator of the immune system), or IL-2 plus melatonin. 15% of the people receiving just IL-2 survived after one year, whereas 46% of the people also receiving melatonin survived. One researcher reported no failures i.e. instances in which melatonin did not have a positive effect. It has been proposed that melatonin might be useful for treating the general ill health found in cancer.


Lab Tests/Rule-Outs  

Digestive Enzymes / (Trial)

Dr. William Kelley recommended high amounts of pancreatic enzymes – 45,000 mg orally. His formula includes a starch-dissolving enzyme which Kelley believes is important in some cases. Many other alternative doctors also use pancreatic enzymes in treating / controlling cancer.

As a large cancer mass is being disolved from enzyme use, it becomes harder for the body to remove this ‘waste’ material and toxemia can result. Toxemia is the primary reason to have the malignant tumor mass surgically removed when possible.






Selenium is useful in the prevention of several cancers. As deficient selenium levels are associated with an increased risk of cancers in general, ensuring adequate selenium intake and maximizing selenium status in the presence of an elevated cancer risk is highly recommended.



There are theoretical reasons and experimental findings that indicate fast-growing cancers can be completely resolved by using a 6gm cesium chloride salt for 30-days. Dr. A. Keith Brewer ((1984) had a program for raising the pH of the cancer cell to 8.0 (highly alkaline). This is the same pH in the small intestine, and it is the pH required to activate trypsin’s digestive enzyme activity. (The author has noted that stomach, colon and rectal cancer are all common – small intestine cancer is rare.)

Cesium is way less expensive than quality pancreatic enzymes. A much smaller does of pancreatic enzymes (maybe 4,500mg daily) along with 6,000mg cesium chloride daily might be enough to destroy tumors.

The Brewer cesium protocol includes:



Reading List

How to Fight Cancer & Win from Agora Health Books contains many unconventional cancer treatments that have helped eliminate cancers of various types. Discover 43 simple ways to cancer-proof your life.

The Promise Of Low Dose Naltrexone Therapy: Potential Benefits in Cancer, Autoimmune, Neurological and Infectious Disorders. By Elaine Moore, co-author SammyJo Wilkinson Foreword by Dr. Yash Agrawal, MD, PhD.

This is perhaps the first, and so far only book on LDN, and as such represents a milestone in the effort to bring LDN into mainstream use. Written by Elaine Moore, a high level science writer with a portfolio of previous accomplishments, her LDN book is perhaps somewhat technical and may be difficult for the untrained non-professional to follow. It delves into the sophisticated jargon of the medical research world. For example, in Chapter 5 on LDN and Cancer, there is a discussion of Zagon’s work on Cyclin dependent kinases, P53 and protein 21 and how this relates to inhibition of cancer by LDN.

However, in addition to the esoteric technical sections of the book, there are also chapters devoted to the lay reader interested in learning how LDN can help them on a practical level. A listing of dispensing practitioners was included which I found contained my own office address and phone number.

The book is highly recommended for other health care practitioners who wish to get quickly up to speed in this new area of medicine which is destined to become the medical paradigm of the 21st century, casting a giant shadow over the rest of mainstream medicine.[ Comments on the LDN book by Jeffrey Dach MD]



A review of 72 studies [J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91: pp.317-31] reported 57 associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene levels and decreased risk of cancer. Of these associations, 35 were statistically significant. The benefit was strongest for prostate, lung, and stomach cancers, although protective associations were also found for cancers of the pancreas, colon, rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data were from observational studies, a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be firmly established. However, the consistently lower risk of cancer associated with higher consumption of lycopene-containing tomatoes, provides a strong foundation for further research on lycopene.

One study found that for the 25% of people with the greatest tomato intake, the risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract was 30-60% lower, compared with those who ate fewer tomatoes. These reduced risks were statistically significant. [Int J Cancer 1994;59: pp.181-4]

Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, an antioxidant compound for which previous studies have suggested and intervention role in certain cancers. In that cancer cells employ the mechanism known as angiogenesis to connect to the body’s blood supply, Mridula Chopra, from the University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom), and colleagues observed that lycopene disabled the angiogenic ability of cancer cells. Writing that: “The anti-angiogenic effects of lycopene in the present study were shown at a concentration that should be achievable by dietary means,” the study authors conclude that: “These results extend our knowledge of one of the putative anti-cancer actions of lycopene.”

[Elgass S, Cooper A, Chopra M. “Lycopene inhibits angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic rings.” Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec 6:1-9.]


Essential Fatty Acids

Please see the link between Cancer / Risk – General Measures and Fish Consumption.


CoQ10 (Ubiquin-one/ol)

There are sound theoretical reasons to add 400 mg of highly absorbable CoQ10 to any anti-cancer protocol. This dosage has initiated complete tumor regression in breast cancer patients. As the pancreas has a high concentration of CoQ10, it may be that restoring CoQ10 levels improves pancreatic function, which can help prevent and treat cancer, according to the John Beard theory of cancer.

Oxygen / Oxidative Therapies  


Vitamin D

Evidence of vitamin D’s protective effect against cancer is compelling. For more than 50 years, documentation in medical literature suggests regular sun exposure is associated with substantial decreases in death rates from certain cancers and a decrease in overall cancer death rates. Recent research suggests this is a causal relationship that acts through the body’s vitamin D metabolic pathways. For instance, some evidence points to a prostate, breast and colon cancer belt in the United States, which lies in northern latitudes under more cloud cover than other regions during the year. Rates for these cancers are two to three times higher than in sunnier regions.

Dark-skinned people require more sun exposure to make vitamin D. The thickness of the skin layer called the stratum corneum affects the absorption of UV radiation. Dark human skin is thicker than white skin and thus transmits only about 40% of the UV rays for vitamin D production. Darkly pigmented individuals who live in sunny equatorial climates experience a higher mortality (not incidence) rate from breast and prostate cancer when they move to geographic areas that are deprived of sunlight exposure in winter months. The rate of increase varies, and researchers hesitate to quote figures because many migrant black populations also have poor nutrition and deficient health care that confound statistics somewhat.

Although excessive sun exposure may give rise to skin cancer, researchers as early as 1936 were aware that skin cancer patients have reduced rates of other cancers. One researcher estimates moderate sunning would prevent 30,000 annual cancer deaths in the United States.

Vitamin D may also go beyond cancer prevention and provide tumor therapy. Much has been made of pharmaceutical angiogenesis inhibitors – agents that help inhibit the growth of new, undesirable blood vessels that tumors require for nutrient supply and growth. Laboratory tests have shown vitamin D to be a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.

Vitamin D also works at another stage of cancer development. Tumor cells are young, immortal cells that never grow up, mature and die off. Because vitamin D derivatives have been shown to promote normal cell growth and maturation, drug companies today are attempting to engineer patentable forms of vitamin D for anti-cancer therapy.

The first large-scale, randomized, placebo-controlled study on vitamin D and cancer has shown that vitamin D can cut cancer risks by as much as 60%. In response, the Canadian Cancer Society is now recommending vitamin D for all adults, the first time a major public-health organization has endorsed the vitamin as a cancer-prevention therapy.

The study looked at almost 1,200 women, aged 55 and older, over the course of four years. Those in a group that was given supplemental calcium and vitamin D had a 60 percent lower risk for all cancers than those who received a placebo. [American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(6):1586-91 June 2007]



Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

The conventional wisdom of how antioxidants such as vitamin C help prevent cancer growth is that they grab up volatile oxygen free radical molecules and prevent the damage they are known to do to our delicate DNA. The Hopkins study, led by Chi Dang, M.D., Ph.D., professor of medicine and oncology and Johns Hopkins Family Professor in Oncology Research, unexpectedly found that the antioxidants’ actual role may be to destabilize a tumor’s ability to grow under oxygen-starved conditions. Their work is detailed this week in Cancer Cell (12 Sept 2007).

“The potential anticancer benefits of antioxidants have been the driving force for many clinical and preclinical studies,” says Dang. “By uncovering the mechanism behind antioxidants, we are now better suited to maximize their therapeutic use.”

“Once again, this work demonstrates the irreplaceable value of letting researchers follow their scientific noses wherever it leads them,” Dang adds.

The authors do caution that while vitamin C is still essential for good health, this study is preliminary and people should not rush out and buy bulk supplies of antioxidants as a means of cancer prevention.

A 2008 study concluded that:

“Supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta carotene offers no overall benefits in the primary prevention of total cancer incidence or cancer mortality.” They wrote that the trial showed: “Neither duration of treatment nor combination of the three antioxidant supplements had effects on overall fatal or nonfatal cancer events.”

“Thus, our results are in agreement with a recent review of randomized trials indicating that total mortality was not affected by duration of supplementation and single or combined antioxidant regimens,” added the researchers. [30 December 2008, Advance Access online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute]



A 2008 study concluded that:

“Supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta carotene offers no overall benefits in the primary prevention of total cancer incidence or cancer mortality.” They wrote that the trial showed: “Neither duration of treatment nor combination of the three antioxidant supplements had effects on overall fatal or nonfatal cancer events.”

“Thus, our results are in agreement with a recent review of randomized trials indicating that total mortality was not affected by duration of supplementation and single or combined antioxidant regimens,” added the researchers. [30 December 2008, Advance Access online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute]


Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Proven definite or direct link
Strongly counter-indicative
May do some good
Likely to help
Highly recommended
May have adverse consequences



Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.


Dangerous. mainly used to describe a cancerous growth -- when used this way, it means the growth is cancerous and predisposed to spreading.


Severe itching, often of undamaged skin.

Hodgkin's Disease

Cancer of the lymphatic system and lymph nodes.


A hollow, muscular, J-shaped pouch located in the upper part of the abdomen to the left of the midline. The upper end (fundus) is large and dome-shaped; the area just below the fundus is called the body of the stomach. The fundus and the body are often referred to as the cardiac portion of the stomach. The lower (pyloric) portion curves downward and to the right and includes the antrum and the pylorus. The function of the stomach is to begin digestion by physically breaking down food received from the esophagus. The tissues of the stomach wall are composed of three types of muscle fibers: circular, longitudinal and oblique. These fibers create structural elasticity and contractibility, both of which are needed for digestion. The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin. To protect itself from being destroyed by its own enzymes, the stomach’s mucous lining must constantly regenerate itself.


The part of the large intestine that extends to the rectum. The colon takes the contents of the small intestine, moving them to the rectum by contracting.


The prostate gland in men that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra and produces a secretion that liquefies coagulated semen.


The cell-free fluid of the bloodstream. It appears in a test tube after the blood clots and is often used in expressions relating to the levels of certain compounds in the blood stream.


The body's most abundant mineral. Its primary function is to help build and maintain bones and teeth. Calcium is also important to heart health, nerves, muscles and skin. Calcium helps control blood acid-alkaline balance, plays a role in cell division, muscle growth and iron utilization, activates certain enzymes, and helps transport nutrients through cell membranes. Calcium also forms a cellular cement called ground substance that helps hold cells and tissues together.

Celiac Disease

(Gluten sensitivity) A digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten. Common symptoms include diarrhea, increased appetite, bloating, weight loss, irritability and fatigue. Gluten is found in wheat (including spelt, triticale, and kamut), rye, barley and sometimes oats.


Commonly called the "food pipe", it is a narrow muscular tube, about nine and a half inches long, that begins below the tongue and ends at the stomach. It consists of an outer layer of fibrous tissue, a middle layer containing smoother muscle, and an inner membrane, which contains numerous tiny glands. It has muscular sphincters at both its upper and lower ends. The upper sphincter relaxes to allow passage of swallowed food that is then propelled down the esophagus into the stomach by the wave-like peristaltic contractions of the esophageal muscles. There is no protective mucosal layer, so problems can arise when digestive acids reflux into the esophagus from the stomach.


The only hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the pineal gland. The hormone appears to inhibit numerous endocrine functions, including the gonadotropic hormones. Research exists on the efficacy of melatonin in treating jet lag and certain sleep disorders. Dosages greater than l milligram have been associated with drowsiness, headaches, disturbances in sleep/wake cycles and is contraindicated in those who are on antidepressive medication. It also negatively influences insulin utilization.


Involving the use of drugs.


(mg): 1/1,000 of a gram by weight.

Autoimmune Disease

One of a large group of diseases in which the immune system turns against the body's own cells, tissues and organs, leading to chronic and often deadly conditions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, Bright's disease and diabetes.


C-reactive protein. A sensitive measure of inflammation in the body.


Excess calcium in the blood.


Chemical substances secreted by a variety of body organs that are carried by the bloodstream and usually influence cells some distance from the source of production. Hormones signal certain enzymes to perform their functions and, in this way, regulate such body functions as blood sugar levels, insulin levels, the menstrual cycle, and growth. These can be prescription, over-the-counter, synthetic or natural agents. Examples include adrenal hormones such as corticosteroids and aldosterone; glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, testosterone, estrogens, progestins, progesterone, DHEA, melatonin, and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and calcitonin.


Compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen present in the body and in foods that form complex combinations of amino acids. Protein is essential for life and is used for growth and repair. Foods that supply the body with protein include animal products, grains, legumes, and vegetables. Proteins from animal sources contain the essential amino acids. Proteins are changed to amino acids in the body.

Parathyroid Hormone

A hormone released by the parathyroid glands that acts to keep a constant level of calcium in body tissues.


One of the female sex hormones produced by the ovaries.


A chemical compound that slows or prevents oxygen from reacting with other compounds. Some antioxidants have been shown to have cancer-protecting potential because they neutralize free radicals. Examples include vitamins C and E, alpha lipoic acid, beta carotene, the minerals selenium, zinc, and germanium, superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q10, catalase, and some amino acids, like cystiene. Other nutrient sources include grape seed extract, curcumin, gingko, green tea, olive leaf, policosanol and pycnogenol.

Vitamin D

A fat-soluble vitamin essential to one's health. Regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood by improving their absorption and utilization. Necessary for normal growth and formation of bones and teeth. For Vitamin D only, 1mcg translates to 40 IU.


A life-threatening type of skin cancer that occurs in the cells (melanocytes) that produce melanin, the pigment found in skin, hair, and the iris of the eyes.

Vitamin A

A fat-soluble vitamin essential to one's health. Plays an important part in the growth and repair of body tissue, protects epithelial tissue, helps maintain the skin and is necessary for night vision. It is also necessary for normal growth and formation of bones and teeth. For Vitamin A only, 1mg translates to 833 IU.


The most abundant of the carotenoids, beta-carotene has strong provitamin A activity and is a stronger antioxidant than vitamin A. It is widely accepted today as a cancer preventative. It is found in leafy green and yellow vegetables, often missing in children's diets. Beta-Carotene is believed to be a superior source of Vitamin A because it is readily converted into a more active form of the substance: your body converts it to Vitamin A as needed.


Cancer of the lymph glands and bone marrow resulting in overproduction of white blood cells (related to Hodgkin's disease).


Pertaining to the stomach, small and large intestines, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.


Any agent that is cancer-causing.


Any tumor of the lymphatic tissues.


A low-calorie sweetener used in a variety of foods and drinks and as a tabletop sweetener. It is about 200 times sweeter than sugar and is commonly known by names such as NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful or Equal-Measure.


Ounce. Approximately 28 grams.

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